The e ducational o bject e conomy what is it how do we make it a reality in the earth sciences
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The E ducational O bject E conomy: What is it? How do we make it a reality in the Earth sciences?. James D. Myers Department of Geology and Geophysics University of Wyoming. Educational Objects: Definition. software for education, training or expertise transfer characterized by:

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The e ducational o bject e conomy what is it how do we make it a reality in the earth sciences

The Educational Object Economy:What is it?How do we make it a reality in the Earth sciences?

James D. Myers

Department of Geology and Geophysics

University of Wyoming

Educational objects definition
Educational Objects: Definition

  • software for education, training or expertise transfer

  • characterized by:

    • discoverability

    • modularity

    • interoperability

    • reusability

Educational objects discoverability
Educational Objects: Discoverability

  • ability to find an object

  • characterized by standardized, searchable information, i.e. metadata

  • permits discovery by electronic search

  • identifies

    • creator

    • purpose

    • technical requirements

    • subject classification

Educational objects modularity
Educational Objects: Modularity

  • characteristics: free standing, non-sequential, coherent

  • functions independently without external resources

  • useable with creator assistance

Educational objects modularity1
Educational Objects: Modularity

  • two approaches

    • black-box: inner workings hidden

      • two interfaces:

        • public: no change to object, use as

        • parameter: object appearance and/or functionality modified slightly

          • degree of change determined by creator

      • object code unchanged

    • gray-box: code provided

      • user can edit it

      • recompile / publish

      • slightly different object or application

Educational objects interoperability
Educational Objects: Interoperability

  • refers to two scales:

    • large: works on variety of hardware platforms, operating systems and/or Web browsers

    • smaller scale: must exchange information with other objects built to same open standard

  • objects standardized in manner of connection not operation

Educational objects reusability
Educational Objects: Reusability

  • foundation for creating applications from objects

  • not a primary characteristic

    • ensured if object has the three main characteristics

      • discoverability

      • modularity

      • interoperability

Building learning applications
Building Learning Applications

  • objects can be reused, recombined, and customized

  • allows rapid creation of multimedia-rich educational resources

  • example: wave propagation object

    • lab exercise on seismic waves

    • lecture on interior of the Earth

    • study-aid on ocean wave refraction

  • key is access and availability of objects

E ducational o bject e conomy eoe
Educational Object Economy (EOE)

  • constitutes:

    • design

    • creation

    • exchange

  • promoted by Web sites

    • EOE (Educational Object Economy)

    • MERLOT (Multimedia Educational Resources for Learning and Online Teaching)

Educational objects benefits
Educational Objects: Benefits

  • flexible

  • updates, searches & content management easy

  • customization

  • competency-based learning

  • increased value

Educational object economy eoe
Educational Object Economy (EOE)

  • not reviewed, commented on or combined with others

  • availability varies widely with discipline

    • 1411 physics

    • 324 computer science

    • 157 health science

  • limited adoption by Earth sciences

    • 47 for Earth science

Educational object economy eoe1
Educational Object Economy (EOE)

  • three factors contribute to slow adoption and growth of an EOE

    • small number of educators willing to acquire skills to create educational objects

    • social and legal barriers

    • duplication of effort

Earth science eoe
Earth Science EOE

  • Earth science must develop its own EOE

  • many have roles in its creation

    • developers/producers

    • educators/users

    • administrators

    • funding agencies

Earth science eoe developers
Earth Science EOE: Developers

  • characterize their objects with metadata

    • make it as specific as possible

    • complete

  • insure modularity

  • make objects interoperable

    • function across range of platforms

    • exchange data according to standards

  • post objects to EOE Web sites

Earth science eoe educators
Earth Science EOE: Educators

  • assist developers

    • provide functional and pedagogical feedback

    • indicate types of objects needed

    • share ideas for objects

  • use objects to create customized learning applications

    • disseminate these applications

  • share tips and hints by commenting on objects and applications

Earth science eoe administrators
Earth Science EOE: Administrators

  • recognize object development and dissemination as an important academic endeavor

  • make resources available for technology development projects, e.g. time, money, software/hardware

  • develop formal guidelines to evaluate object development for tenure and promotion decisions

Earth science eoe funding agencies
Earth Science EOE: Funding Agencies

  • support developer/user teams

  • promote projects to assess educational object effectiveness

  • encourage efforts to develop ways to disseminate education objects to the widest possible audience

    • specific EOE Earth science Web site

    • inclusion in digital library efforts


  • educational objects are standalone software “chunks”

  • characterized by: discoverability, modularity, interoperability, reusability

  • reused and recombined to produce learning applications

  • Earth science has not adopted EOE model