Quality Human Resource & Scientific Development. Uttam Pati Professor and Chairman Centre for Biotechnology Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi 67 [email protected] "Quality is the expression of human excellence.".
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It is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy given needs.
Biotechnology is the main high technology driver affecting the health and life sciences industry today
The great challenge for biology in this century is to understand how each gene works individually and collectively to create a living organism
Stem cells Technology
Intellectual Property Right
Patents and law
Gene & Environment
Pharmaceutical and healthcare industry
Food and drink industry
Agriculture (and to a lesser extent forestry and fisheries)
Environment (mainly through monitoring systems)
Regulatory affairs and law enforcement (through forensic science)
Information technology (through e.g. bioinformatics, telemedicine)
Medical devices (especially biomaterials)
“You have to remember that the sequence is only the beginning. It creates far more questions than it answers - it doesn’t actually answer any biological questions at all. What it does is to provide a very finely honed set of tools for people to turn biological questions into molecular terms”
John Sulston, Director of the Sanger Centre, Cambridge,
“The human genome is data, not knowledge, and would be useless until We understand what it means. The belief that we will put all this data into Computers and they will tell us the answers is ill founded”
“Thomas Jefferson of Molecular Biology”
Nobel Prize winner 2002
The raw data (DNA sequence data, or any data), often in the public domain, are virtually useless.
Primary data analysis requires sophisticated computation by molecular biologists.
There are neither enough computer competent molecular biologists (bio-informaticians) in the world to carry out the primary analysis
nor enough molecular biologists to do the proteomics (gene to function).
The data are meaningless in the absence of top quality biology and biologist.
The USA Model
In the U.S., revenues in 2000 were $22.3 billion and R&D investment of the order of $10.7 billion(2001). Application areas for biotechnology include drug products and vaccines, medical diagnostic tests, biotechnology-based foods, environmental cleaning, industrial biotechnology and forensic science. In 2006, Industries alone spent $39 billion in R&D.
US companies lead the field in innovation, as evidenced by the fact that, of the 150 genetic engineering-based healthcare patents issued in the US in 1995, 122 (81 per cent) were to US companies. Only 11 were to EU companies.1999:380 Patents issued; US - 321
source: The US Biotechnology Industry. US Dept. of Commerce - Office of Technology Policy, Washington, Sept. 1997
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), a private university, is one of the largest recipients of US government funds for R&D, has created 4,000 companies over the last 30-40 years. These companies have an annual turnover of $230 billion and employ 1.1 million people.
strong feedback loops (R&D programmes, tax incentives, patent laws etc.) joining government, universities and high technology industries.
Education & Biotech Sector
12th Grade Pass
Number of colleges
1947 1950 1997 2005
Number of Universities
1947 1950 1997 2005
40 National Research Laboratories in the country employ 15,000 scientists
700,000 post graduates & 1500 PhDs qualify in biosciences and engineering each year.
What do they do ?
Low Critical Mass
Govt.’s Biotechnology Support
In Million $
87- 88 97 - 98 02 -03
• 150 BT companies in India
• 75 per cent of these companies have been established in the last 5 years
• 2002 revenue forecast for BT cos. is $150m
• export revenues are forecast at $60m
• VC funding has been modest at $20 million
• Total investment to date by Biotech companies $100 million
• Employment strength of scientific personnel the BT sector stands at 15,000
“There are no Indian Institutions Which can be compared to the best Institutions in the advanced countries” (Prof CNR Rao)
I.I.Sc ranks 251/500 in a world survey
IITs rank 451/500
Global Creativity Index: 41st/45 Countries
Students entering science in India: 1.7%
UNDP Human Development Report 2001
33% Diarraehal Diseases
25% Maternal Death
20% female cervical cancer
2nd largest HIV
2nd largest Hepatitis B
13500 TB death /year
10% Physically disabled
When SS Bhatnagar started setting up ARIs totally independent Of Universities, the obvious negation of Nehru’s grand vision of science and technology had probably Not been foreseen.
The Failure of UGC to
protect and enhance
the University system
Its lack of Visionfor
Its negation to the idea
“The Bureaucracy is unbearable. We cannot have the Dept of Personnel in Delhi deciding on who is a good scientist and who is able to head an Institution”
CNR Rao, Chairman
PM’s Scientific Advisory Council
Low Allocation on Education: 4.6% of GDP
Lack of Scientific Infrastructure
No Long Term Science policy
60% of Educational and RD Institutions are located in 6-8 states (revenge for non-alignment with Centre ?)
2004: All technological Innovation from Delhi, Bangalore and Hyderabad
The lack of Philanthropy in our culture
The Greedy Indian Industries who never contribute to society
The absence of Private Universities such as
Ivy Leagues in Western tradition
An over all dishonesty factor (Two survey
Declared India No.1 as Bribe Giver and Bribe taker) that is anti-creative & non - Scientific
Popularizing- Science in Schools
Modernizing- Undergraduate Science Program
Designing- the employable future of Scientists
Investing- heavily upon postdoctoral Research
Creating- Instrumentation Facilities in each capitals
Supporting- with core research grants to Universities
Penalizing- Industries who don’t support on Research
Tax incentives- to Industries who support Universities
Incentives- to establish Private universities
Heavy Incentives- to attract quality Researchers
Increase in Critical Mass- simultaneously Linking to Quality
Biotechnology is expected to offer investment opportunities of US$ 500 million during 2003. The growth is expected in the following areas:
Source: Study by CII
• The Indian biotechnology market is expected to grow to US$ 204 million by 2003 and US$ 408 million by 2007.
THE INDIAN biotechnology industry is gaining momentum. With revenues of over $700 million (Rs. 3,265 crores) in 2003-04, the fledgling industry, despite all hurdles, is well on its way to cross the psychological barrier of $1 billion in the current year. It is poised to leverage its scientific skills and technical expertise to make a global impact from a strong innovation led platform.
There are. There are more than 300 college level educational and training institutes offering degrees and diplomas in biotechnology, bio-informatics and the biological sciences, producing nearly five lakh students annually.
. Given this skilled resource pool, India is in a good position to create a sustainable biotechnology business. The sector is gradually building critical mass both in terms of infrastructure and markets.
Just a few statistics are adequate to establish the success of the Indian software industry.
Software exports from India grew from Rs. 135 crores in 1990-91 to Rs. 2520 crores in
1995-96 and reached Rs. 36,500 crores in 2001-02 (Nasscom, 2002). The industry
accounted for almost 2% of India’s Gross Domestic Product and 14% of India’s exports
in 2000-01. Nasscom estimates that the employment provided by the IT services industry
was about 522,000 by March 2002, of which 92,000 jobs were created in the year 2001-
02 (Nasscom, 2002).
The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), the government body to promote scientific research, has a network of 40 laboratories, 80 field stations and 22,000 trained personnel. Also India has 29 agriculture universities and 204 central and state universities.
Establish an institutionally defined, fixed training period of three to five years, with goals and milestones established by the mentor and trainee.
Establish a regular annual or biannual review of training progress, and provide feedback to postdoctoral trainees and their mentors.
Educate trainees about research employment opportunities in academia and industry, as well as nonresearch employment options such as careers in administration and management, science writing, patent law, and public policy. Provide access to a career-resource center for career counseling and workshops on curriculum vitae preparation and job-searching skills.
India and world
Indian universiyt and curriculum
The design: :web site, post doctoral research
Instrumentation facilities in capitals,data base and data mining
Rules to bring industry into line