Kepemimpinan Dalam Keperawatan
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Kepemimpinan Dalam Keperawatan Debie Dahlia, SKp., MHSM., ETN. Background. Nursing, in any role, is a people business Nurses are becoming a part of a work group where members spend at least a third of their day interacting with each other

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Kepemimpinan Dalam Keperawatan

Debie Dahlia, SKp., MHSM., ETN


Background
Background

  • Nursing, in any role, is a people business

  • Nurses are becoming a part of a work group where members spend at least a third of their day interacting with each other

  • Therefore, nurses must be prepared to use interpersonal, leadership, and management skills to be effective in their role as a provider of patient care


Management versus leadership
Management versus Leadership

What Is the Difference Between Management and Leadership?

  • Although the terms management and leadership are frequently interchanged, they do not have the same meaning.

  • A leader selects and assumes the role ; A manager is assigned or appointed to the role


Management versus leadership1
Management versus Leadership

  • Managers have responsibility for organizational goals and the performance of organizational tasks

  • Managers, as a providers of care, supervise a team of people who are working to help patients achieve their defined outcomes

  • Leaders are effective at influencing others


The functions of management
The Functions of Management

  • Management is a problem-oriented process with similarities to the nursing process

  • Management is needed whenever two or more individuals work together toward a common goal

  • The manager coordinates the activities of the group to maintain balance and direction

  • There are generally four functions the manager performs: planning, organizing, directing and controlling


What is meant by management style
What Is Meant by Management Style ?

  • The management style in nursing practice vary from autocratic to laissez faire style

  • The autocratic manager uses an authoritarian approach to direct the activities of others

  • This individual makes most of the decisions alone without input from other staff members

  • The emphasis on the tasks to be done, with less focus on the individual staff members who perform the tasks.


  • On the other end of the continuum is the laissez-faire manager, who maintains a permissive climate with little direction or control exerted

  • This manager allows staff members to make and implement decisions independently and relinquishes most of his or her power and responsibility to them


  • In the middle of the continuum is the democratic manager

  • This manager is people-oriented & emphasizes effective group functioning

  • The goals of the group are identified, & manager is perceived as a group member who is also its organizer & who keeps the group moving in the defined direction.


  • In choosing a management style, the manager must decide on levels of control and freedom and then determine which trade-offs are acceptable in each particular situation.

  • Leadership, in contrast, is a way of behaving; it is the ability to cause others to respond, not because they have to but they want to respond.

  • Leadership is needed as much as management for effective group functioning but each role has its place.

  • The leader focuses a group’s efforts on indentifying goals and carrying out the activities needed to reach those goals.


According to Mannion (1998), levels of control and freedom and then determine which trade-offs are acceptable in each particular situation.the major differences between Manager

& Leader are:

  • Leaders focuses on effectiveness, and managers focus on efficiency

  • Leader ask what and why, managers ask how

  • Leaders deal with people and relationships, and Managers deal with systems, control, and policies

  • Leaders initiate innovation, and Managers maintain the status quo

  • Leaders look to the horizon, and Managers look to the bottom line


Surviving and thriving as a leader
Surviving And Thriving As A Leader levels of control and freedom and then determine which trade-offs are acceptable in each particular situation.

  • The leader must maintain balance

  • The leader must generate self-motivation

  • The leader must work to build self-confidence

  • The leader must listen to his/her constituent

  • The leader must have a positive attitude


The nurse as leader
The Nurse as Leader levels of control and freedom and then determine which trade-offs are acceptable in each particular situation.

Professional nurse assume leadership in relationship:

  • With clients

  • With peers

  • With other colleagues

  • With political leaders

  • With public at large

  • To influence change and

  • To enable client to make

  • optimal choices for health


The nurse as leader1
The Nurse As Leader levels of control and freedom and then determine which trade-offs are acceptable in each particular situation.

Leadership Within the Workplaces

  • Staff Nurse as Leader

  • Nurse Manager as Leader

  • Nurse executive as Leader

  • Nurse Student as Leader

    Leadership in the Community


  • Leadership is what gives nursing its vision and its abilities to transform clients’ health.

  • This transformation occurs through the leaders’ translation of vision into reality with clients.

  • In the transformational, the nurse leader is the coordinator of communication.


Role of the professional nurse as patient care managers leaders
Role of the Professional Nurse as Patient care Managers/Leaders

Nurse enters

Relationship

Assessment

Nursing diagnoses

Planning

Evaluation

Implementing Intervention


Peran dan fungsi kepemimpinan dalam manajemen keperawatan
Peran dan Fungsi Kepemimpinan Dalam Manajemen Keperawatan Managers/Leaders

  • Planning

  • Organizing

  • Staffing

  • Directing

  • Controlling


Leadership roles in planning
Leadership Roles in Planning Managers/Leaders

  • Assesses the organization internal & external environment

  • Demonstrates visionary, innovative, and creative thinking in organizational

  • Influences and inspires group members

  • Periodically completes value clarification to increase self-awareness



Leadership roles with organizational structure
Leadership Roles With Organizational Structure actively listening and providing feedback

  • Evaluates the organizational structure frequently to determine if management position can be eliminated to reduce the chain of command

  • Encourage employees to follow the chain of command

  • Supports personnel in advisory (staff) positions

  • Models responsibility and accountability for subordinates


  • Assists nursing staff to see how their roles are congruent with and complement the common organizational task

  • Facilities informal group structure

  • Encourages upward communication

  • Counsels employees who do not follow chain of command

  • Uses committees to facilitate group goals, not delay decisions


Leadership roles in organizing patient care
Leadership Roles in Organizing Patient Care with and complement the common organizational task

  • Periodically evaluates the effectiveness of the organizational structure for the delivery of patient care

  • Determines if adequate resources and support exist before making any change

  • Examines the human element in work redesign and supports personnel during adjustment to change

  • Inspires the work group toward a team effort



Staffing
Staffing changes in patient care delivery system

  • Plans for future staffing needs proactively

  • Uses the interview process as a means to promote the organization’s image

  • Periodically review induction and orientation programs to ascertain they are meeting until needs

  • Ensures that each new employee understands appropriate organizational policies


  • Infuses a team spirit among employees changes in patient care delivery system

  • Serves as a role model to all employees and a mentor to select employees

  • Observes carefully for signs of knowledge or skill deficit in new employees and intervenes appropriately


Directing
Directing changes in patient care delivery system

  • Recognizes each worker as a unique individual

  • Maintains a positive and enthusiastic image as a role model to subordinates

  • Demonstrates through actions and words a belief in subordinates that they desire to meet organizational goals

  • Understands and appropriately uses the informal communication network in the organization

    5. Appropriately observes and interprets

    verbal and nonverbal communication of

    followers


Controlling
Controlling changes in patient care delivery system

  • Encourages followers to be actively involved in the quality control process

  • Uses control as a method of determining why goals were not met

  • Supports/actively participates in research efforts to identify and measure “nursing-sensitive” patient outcomes

  • Uses the appraisal process to motivate employees and promote growth



Thank you
Thank You evaluating performance

Be A Good Leader

and

Manager


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