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HVAC Air Filtration Overview and Life Cycle Cost Case Study Garry Pangborn March 8, 2012

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HVAC Air Filtration Overview and Life Cycle Cost Case Study Garry Pangborn March 8, 2012 Freudenberg Filtration Technologies. The Air We Breath - Sizes of Common Particles. The Air We Breathe - Particle Size Distribution of Atmospheric Air.

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slide1
HVAC Air Filtration

Overview and Life Cycle Cost Case Study

Garry Pangborn

March 8, 2012

Freudenberg Filtration Technologies

slide3

The Air We Breathe - Particle Size Distribution of Atmospheric Air

  • The activities of modern society have greatly increased presence of sub-micron particles

Primarily Naturally-Occurring

Primarily Man-made

Fine

slide4

The Air We Breathe – Health & Wellness Considerations

  • Every day, the typical adult in the U.S.:
    • Eats 3 lbs of food
    • Drinks 4 lbs of fluids
    • Breathes 35 lbs of air!
  • Particles are deposited into respiratory tract; the smaller the particle, the deeper it can reach
  • EPA estimates that people spend 90% of time indoors
  • Sick Building Syndrome, Building Related Illness, Pandemics
  • Productivity benefits of improved IAQ (Indoor Air Quality)
  • Increases in allergy and asthma cases nationwide
  • Increasing evidence that disease can spread via airborne routes (droplet nuclei)
slide5

The Air We Breathe – Dust Concentrations

  • What is the dust concentration in this room?
    • 10 to 50 μg/m3
  • What is it in the extremes in the world?
    • Lowest recorded – Antarctica at 0.00001 μg/m3
    • Highest recorded – Sandstorms at 4,000 to 6,000 μg/m3
  • What is Urban Typical?
    • In the United States – 20 to 50 μg/m3
    • In China – 300 to 500 μg/m3
slide6

Air Filtration Mechanisms

Electrostatic Attraction

Inertial Impaction

(-)

(+)

Filter

Fiber

Brownian Diffusion

Interception

filter efficiency filtration mechanisms working together
Filter Efficiency - Filtration Mechanisms Working Together
  • Filter Efficiency is the combination of the various capture schemes
    • Sieving
    • Inertial impaction
    • Interception
    • Diffusion
    • Electrostatic attraction
slide8

Filtration Efficiency - What is MERV?

Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV)

  • ASHRAE 52.2 standard
  • Classification system for filters based upon particle capture efficiency
  • Numerical designation between 1 and 16

ASHRAE 52.2 MERV Table

LEED Point for

MERV Level ≥13

slide9

Filter Pressure Drop and Energy

  • Energy consumption impact: Up to 30% of fan energy usage due to filter pressure drop

Governing equation for how lower ΔP equates to lower energy usage:

Q x

ΔP

x t

Energy

=

η

where…

Q = volumetric flow rate

ΔP = pressure drop

t = time

η = motor-fan efficiency

Target operating zone.

slide10

Filter Pressure Drop and Energy

Optimum Filter Change-out Timing

Goal should be to change-out filters at the lowest point on this curve.

slide11

Filter Selection Criteria

  • Life cycle costs most important
    • Note difference in values between LCC and Initial Cost
  • Avoidance of catastrophic failures due to blowout or moisture are noteworthy
  • Fit and MERV naturally a key criteria
  • Vendor knowledge / service is valued
slide13

A Case Study in Energy and Life Cycle Cost Savings

Case Study Background

  • Interest in energy savings and sustainability
  • Business and Aerospace Building, 3rd Floor
  • Pursued side-by-side energy consumption comparison study

Business & Aerospace Bldg

Single-stage

2-Stage System

vs.

Filter Installation

  • Side access housing
  • 4 rows of 20” tall tracks
  • 5 columns of filters 24” wide
  • Side-load gasketing
  • Two stages
    • 2” pleated pre-filter
    • 20”x24”x12” box filter
  • Single stage – no pre-filter
    • 20”x24”x20” pocket filter
    • 4 pockets per filter
slide14

A Case Study in Energy and Life Cycle Cost Savings

Head-to-Head Pressure Drop Across Filter Banks

Data courtesy MTSU

slide15

A Case Study in Energy and Life Cycle Cost Savings

Illustration of Pressure Drop Comparison Across Filter Banks

slide16

A Case Study in Energy and Life Cycle Cost Savings

Energy Monitoring

  • ABB variable frequency drives (VFD)
  • 30 HP motors
  • Hourly data logging of motor voltage and current for each air handler
  • Power data then tabulated in Excel

Data Example

(courtesy MTSU)

slide17

A Case Study in Energy and Life Cycle Cost Savings

Energy Monitoring Results

Data courtesy MTSU

slide18

A Case Study in Energy and Life Cycle Cost Savings

Filter Pressure Drop Checks under Controlled Laboratory Conditions

sustainability impact in addition to energy reduction
Sustainability Impact – In Addition to Energy Reduction
  • Potential waste reduction on campus
    • Major reduction in filter usage
      • Pre-filters eliminated
  • 3x lifetime of typical box/cell filters

Filter Qty: 300  20

93% potential reduction in usage over 3 yr period

filtration life cycle cost reduction
Filtration Life Cycle Cost Reduction
  • Note importance of energy consumption
  • For every 0.1” w.g. reduction in P there is an energy savings of $17 per filter per year (@ $0.06 per kWh)

Initial Filter Costs

Operating Costs

  • Case Study Total Cost of Ownership Impact (over 3 years)
    • Energy Cost 44%
    • Filter Cost 54%
    • Labor Cost 86%
  • Overall 50%
slide21

Additional University Case Studies

Additional Example #1 Southeast

Additional Example #2 - Midwest

Additional Example #3

Northeast

  • V-bank Type Filter (no pre-filter)
  • Filter dP at 30 months of service: 0.68” w.c. (new 0.28” w.c.)
  • Case study presented at 2010 MIAPPA summer conference: www.fm.wmich.edu/miappa/conf/s10/index.html
  • Pocket Filter (no pre-filter)
  • Filter dP after 24 months of service: 0.24” w.c. (new = 0.20” w.c.)
  • Pocket Filter (no pre-filter)
  • Filter dP after 40 months of service: 0.29” w.c.

Previous Incumbent:

Pre-filters:

changed quarterly

Final filters: changed every 12-18 months

Previous Incumbent:

Pre-filters:

changed quarterly

Final filters: changed annually

Previous Incumbent:

Pre-filters:

changed quarterly

Final filters: changed every 12-18 months

greenguard certification
Greenguard Certification

Check air filters for certification

  • 3rd party qualification
  • Assesses emissions of VOC’s (i.e. formaldehyde)
  • Evaluates product for mold/fungi growth

Greenguard Certificate of Compliance

trends in air filtration market
Trends in Air Filtration Market
  • Elimination of roll filters
  • Consolidation of 2-stage pleated filter + box filter to long-life pocket technology or V-bank filters
  • Higher efficiencies (LEED - MERV 13)
  • End-user focus on energy conservation (lower dP filters)
  • End-user focus on life cycle costs
  • End-user focus on sustainability and less waste
  • Growth of synthetic media filters vs. glass due to:
    • Lower cost
    • Moisture resistance
    • Lower VOC emissions
  • Ultraviolet (UV) lights used in conjunction with air filters to help keep heat transfer coils ultra clean
  • Nanofiber filter media
  • Glass fiber shedding
  • More puncture resistant
  • Installer friendly (skin contact)
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