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HVAC Air Filtration Overview and Life Cycle Cost Case Study Garry Pangborn March 8, 2012 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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HVAC Air Filtration Overview and Life Cycle Cost Case Study Garry Pangborn March 8, 2012 Freudenberg Filtration Technologies. The Air We Breath - Sizes of Common Particles. The Air We Breathe - Particle Size Distribution of Atmospheric Air.

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HVAC Air Filtration Overview and Life Cycle Cost Case Study Garry Pangborn March 8, 2012

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Hvac air filtration overview and life cycle cost case study garry pangborn march 8 2012

HVAC Air Filtration

Overview and Life Cycle Cost Case Study

Garry Pangborn

March 8, 2012

Freudenberg Filtration Technologies


Hvac air filtration overview and life cycle cost case study garry pangborn march 8 2012

The Air We Breath - Sizes of Common Particles


Hvac air filtration overview and life cycle cost case study garry pangborn march 8 2012

The Air We Breathe - Particle Size Distribution of Atmospheric Air

  • The activities of modern society have greatly increased presence of sub-micron particles

Primarily Naturally-Occurring

Primarily Man-made

Fine


Hvac air filtration overview and life cycle cost case study garry pangborn march 8 2012

The Air We Breathe – Health & Wellness Considerations

  • Every day, the typical adult in the U.S.:

    • Eats 3 lbs of food

    • Drinks 4 lbs of fluids

    • Breathes 35 lbs of air!

  • Particles are deposited into respiratory tract; the smaller the particle, the deeper it can reach

  • EPA estimates that people spend 90% of time indoors

  • Sick Building Syndrome, Building Related Illness, Pandemics

  • Productivity benefits of improved IAQ (Indoor Air Quality)

  • Increases in allergy and asthma cases nationwide

  • Increasing evidence that disease can spread via airborne routes (droplet nuclei)


Hvac air filtration overview and life cycle cost case study garry pangborn march 8 2012

The Air We Breathe – Dust Concentrations

  • What is the dust concentration in this room?

    • 10 to 50 μg/m3

  • What is it in the extremes in the world?

    • Lowest recorded – Antarctica at 0.00001 μg/m3

    • Highest recorded – Sandstorms at 4,000 to 6,000 μg/m3

  • What is Urban Typical?

    • In the United States – 20 to 50 μg/m3

    • In China – 300 to 500 μg/m3


Hvac air filtration overview and life cycle cost case study garry pangborn march 8 2012

Air Filtration Mechanisms

Electrostatic Attraction

Inertial Impaction

(-)

(+)

Filter

Fiber

Brownian Diffusion

Interception


Filter efficiency filtration mechanisms working together

Filter Efficiency - Filtration Mechanisms Working Together

  • Filter Efficiency is the combination of the various capture schemes

    • Sieving

    • Inertial impaction

    • Interception

    • Diffusion

    • Electrostatic attraction


Hvac air filtration overview and life cycle cost case study garry pangborn march 8 2012

Filtration Efficiency - What is MERV?

Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV)

  • ASHRAE 52.2 standard

  • Classification system for filters based upon particle capture efficiency

  • Numerical designation between 1 and 16

ASHRAE 52.2 MERV Table

LEED Point for

MERV Level ≥13


Hvac air filtration overview and life cycle cost case study garry pangborn march 8 2012

Filter Pressure Drop and Energy

  • Energy consumption impact: Up to 30% of fan energy usage due to filter pressure drop

Governing equation for how lower ΔP equates to lower energy usage:

Q x

ΔP

x t

Energy

=

η

where…

Q = volumetric flow rate

ΔP = pressure drop

t = time

η = motor-fan efficiency

Target operating zone.


Hvac air filtration overview and life cycle cost case study garry pangborn march 8 2012

Filter Pressure Drop and Energy

Optimum Filter Change-out Timing

Goal should be to change-out filters at the lowest point on this curve.


Hvac air filtration overview and life cycle cost case study garry pangborn march 8 2012

Filter Selection Criteria

  • Life cycle costs most important

    • Note difference in values between LCC and Initial Cost

  • Avoidance of catastrophic failures due to blowout or moisture are noteworthy

  • Fit and MERV naturally a key criteria

  • Vendor knowledge / service is valued


Hvac air filtration overview and life cycle cost case study garry pangborn march 8 2012

Filter Types by Efficiency Levels


Hvac air filtration overview and life cycle cost case study garry pangborn march 8 2012

A Case Study in Energy and Life Cycle Cost Savings

Case Study Background

  • Interest in energy savings and sustainability

  • Business and Aerospace Building, 3rd Floor

  • Pursued side-by-side energy consumption comparison study

Business & Aerospace Bldg

Single-stage

2-Stage System

vs.

Filter Installation

  • Side access housing

  • 4 rows of 20” tall tracks

  • 5 columns of filters 24” wide

  • Side-load gasketing

  • Two stages

    • 2” pleated pre-filter

    • 20”x24”x12” box filter

  • Single stage – no pre-filter

    • 20”x24”x20” pocket filter

    • 4 pockets per filter


Hvac air filtration overview and life cycle cost case study garry pangborn march 8 2012

A Case Study in Energy and Life Cycle Cost Savings

Head-to-Head Pressure Drop Across Filter Banks

Data courtesy MTSU


Hvac air filtration overview and life cycle cost case study garry pangborn march 8 2012

A Case Study in Energy and Life Cycle Cost Savings

Illustration of Pressure Drop Comparison Across Filter Banks


Hvac air filtration overview and life cycle cost case study garry pangborn march 8 2012

A Case Study in Energy and Life Cycle Cost Savings

Energy Monitoring

  • ABB variable frequency drives (VFD)

  • 30 HP motors

  • Hourly data logging of motor voltage and current for each air handler

  • Power data then tabulated in Excel

Data Example

(courtesy MTSU)


Hvac air filtration overview and life cycle cost case study garry pangborn march 8 2012

A Case Study in Energy and Life Cycle Cost Savings

Energy Monitoring Results

Data courtesy MTSU


Hvac air filtration overview and life cycle cost case study garry pangborn march 8 2012

A Case Study in Energy and Life Cycle Cost Savings

Filter Pressure Drop Checks under Controlled Laboratory Conditions


Sustainability impact in addition to energy reduction

Sustainability Impact – In Addition to Energy Reduction

  • Potential waste reduction on campus

    • Major reduction in filter usage

      • Pre-filters eliminated

  • 3x lifetime of typical box/cell filters

Filter Qty: 300  20

93% potential reduction in usage over 3 yr period


Filtration life cycle cost reduction

Filtration Life Cycle Cost Reduction

  • Note importance of energy consumption

  • For every 0.1” w.g. reduction in P there is an energy savings of $17 per filter per year (@ $0.06 per kWh)

Initial Filter Costs

Operating Costs

  • Case Study Total Cost of Ownership Impact (over 3 years)

    • Energy Cost44%

    • Filter Cost54%

    • Labor Cost86%

  • Overall50%


Hvac air filtration overview and life cycle cost case study garry pangborn march 8 2012

Additional University Case Studies

Additional Example #1 Southeast

Additional Example #2 - Midwest

Additional Example #3

Northeast

  • V-bank Type Filter (no pre-filter)

  • Filter dP at 30 months of service: 0.68” w.c. (new 0.28” w.c.)

  • Case study presented at 2010 MIAPPA summer conference: www.fm.wmich.edu/miappa/conf/s10/index.html

  • Pocket Filter (no pre-filter)

  • Filter dP after 24 months of service: 0.24” w.c. (new = 0.20” w.c.)

  • Pocket Filter (no pre-filter)

  • Filter dP after 40 months of service: 0.29” w.c.

Previous Incumbent:

Pre-filters:

changed quarterly

Final filters: changed every 12-18 months

Previous Incumbent:

Pre-filters:

changed quarterly

Final filters: changed annually

Previous Incumbent:

Pre-filters:

changed quarterly

Final filters: changed every 12-18 months


Greenguard certification

Greenguard Certification

Check air filters for certification

  • 3rd party qualification

  • Assesses emissions of VOC’s (i.e. formaldehyde)

  • Evaluates product for mold/fungi growth

Greenguard Certificate of Compliance


Trends in air filtration market

Trends in Air Filtration Market

  • Elimination of roll filters

  • Consolidation of 2-stage pleated filter + box filter to long-life pocket technology or V-bank filters

  • Higher efficiencies (LEED - MERV 13)

  • End-user focus on energy conservation (lower dP filters)

  • End-user focus on life cycle costs

  • End-user focus on sustainability and less waste

  • Growth of synthetic media filters vs. glass due to:

    • Lower cost

    • Moisture resistance

    • Lower VOC emissions

  • Ultraviolet (UV) lights used in conjunction with air filters to help keep heat transfer coils ultra clean

  • Nanofiber filter media

  • Glass fiber shedding

  • More puncture resistant

  • Installer friendly (skin contact)


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