Validity
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Validity. Internal validity: Are the methods correct and the results accurate? External validity: are the findings generalizable beyond that particular study?. Measurement Validity.

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Validity l.jpg
Validity

  • Internal validity: Are the methods correct and the results accurate?

  • External validity: are the findings generalizable beyond that particular study?


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Measurement Validity

  • validity: the extent to which the method of measurement reflects the true meaning of a concept being investigated

    • example: Do tests really measure what student learning?

    • Example: Do college GPAs accurately predict on the job success?

  • content validity: a scale should measure the true meaning of the concept being studied

    • example: GCS (General Contentment Scale) should measure depression, not self esteem


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measurement validity--continued

  • face validity (representational validity): whether a measuring instrument appears to be valid to the persons completing it.

    • example: African Americans take a history test, but all of the questions were written by Euro-Americans about European history.

  • concurrent validity (a.k.a convergent validity): Do the results from one measure correspond with those of related measures?

    • example: scores on a communication anxiety scale should coincide with scores on a communication apprehension scale


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measurement validity--continued

  • discriminant validity: a measuring instrument should not covary with other instruments measuring different concepts

  • criterion validity: how well a measure predicts another established criterion

    • example: Do a person’s reported income predict his or her credit score?

    • example: “need for cognition” versus “argumentativeness”

  • construct validity: a measure should fit well with other measures of similar theoretical concepts.

    • example: scores on a “marital satisfaction” scale should be negatively related to spouse abuse.


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measurement validity--continued

  • predictive validity: can a measure predict future behavior?

    • example: Does the Suicide Probability Scale accurately predict which adolescents are likely to attempt suicide?


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