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TYPICAL OR COMMON FEEDS/FEEDSTUFFS . 2008 Stephen R Schafer, EdD University of Nevada-Reno . Partially Funded By. Ag Council of Nevada 4 Hall Lane Yerington, NV 89447.

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Typical or common feeds feedstuffs l.jpg

TYPICAL OR COMMONFEEDS/FEEDSTUFFS

2008

Stephen R Schafer, EdD

University of Nevada-Reno


Partially funded by l.jpg
Partially Funded By

Ag Council of Nevada

4 Hall Lane

Yerington, NV 89447

This presentation was developed for use as an educational resource and is provided as an educational service. User/purchase fees are not associated with this presentation.


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Information Development

Much effort and time was devoted to:

developing accurate/current information

incorporating appropriate pictures/graphics

providing proper credit of pictures/graphics

obtaining copyright/educational permission

Any and/or all errors, omissions, etc.

are purely unintentional/accidental.


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Information Sources

Colorado State University (4-H Livestock Manuals)

Kansas State University (Forage Website)

National 4-H/4HCCS (4-H Livestock Manuals)

Oklahoma State University (Hay Judging)

United States Dept of Agriculture (Animal Nutrition)

University of Kentucky (Agripedia)

University of Wyoming (4-H Livestock Manuals)

Wikipedia {internet site}(Internet Encyclopedia)


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TYPICAL OR COMMONFEEDS/FEEDSTUFFS

Author

Dr. Steve Schafer, University of Nevada-Reno

Reviewers

Dr. Steve Paisley, University of Wyoming

Mr. Alan Hogan, Louisiana State University

Mr. Wayne Tatman, University of Wyoming


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Feedstuff(s) Usage/Purpose

In order to understand proper feeding and usage of

feeds & feedstuffs, it is necessary to comprehend:

animal digestion systems

animal growth patterns


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Feedstuff(s) Usage/Purpose

In order to understand proper feeding and usage of feeds & feedstuffs,

it is necessary to comprehend digestion systems & growth patterns.

Two types of digestive systems (non-ruminant/monogastric & ruminant).

Ruminant animals (such as cattle, sheep, etc) have multi-part stomachs. This results in fermentation, and thus the digestion of grass/forage plants for the utilization/absorption of nutrients is possible and effective.

Non-ruminant or mongastric animals (such as pigs) have a simple or single compartment stomach, so grass/forage digestion/utilization is not efficient.

Animals first grow by building bone & muscle. As they age, bone & muscle growth

decrease, & body maintenance/fat deposition needs increase . As result, protein is

important in younger animals & energy is important in older/finishing animals.


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Nutrients of Feeds/Feedstuffs

All feedstuffs contain many different nutrients

All nutrients are important to animal

Each nutrient serves a different purpose

There are five types of nutrients

energy (carbohydrates & fats)

protein

vitamins

minerals

water


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Purposes of Nutrients

Energy…used to fuel, power, and heat the body

carbohydrates – sugars and starches

fats – 2.5 times more energy than carbohydrates

Protein…used to build the body (bone, muscle, tissue, etc)

Vitamins…important for chemical reactions in the body

Minerals…needed for the various life processes of body

Water…is the largest component of most living things, as

result, it is the most important/needed nutrient


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Feedstuff(s) Categories

Feedstuffs can be divided into two major categories:

Concentrates….grains such as corn, oats, wheat, barley, milo, soybeans, etc….provide much energy…the protein varies, soybean meal and cottonseed meal is high (41-44%) but corn and oats is lower (9-12%)

Roughages….forages such various types of hay, alfalfa, clover, etc….provide much fiber…the protein content varies, alfalfa is higher (15-19%, and sometimes even a little higher) but grass hay is lower (6-8%).


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Feed Supplements

Along with the two major divisions of feedstuffs, other

ingredients are also used when formulating a feed ration

Typically, there are two other types of ingredients:

Nutrition Supplement…a mixture of vitamins and

minerals designed to ensure proper nutrition and balance that meets/exceeds minimum requirements

Medical Supplement…provides some sort of

treatment and/or prevention through the animal eating/consuming the feed ration provided


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Feed Label

See a connection to previous slides?

Information on Feed Label:

Intended Species

Intended Purpose

Ingredients

Protein Percent

Withdrawal Time

Warnings/Precautions

Feeding Instructions

Company Contact Info

Photo: Ohio State University


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Feedstuff(s) Quality

Regardless of the feedstuff (concentrate or roughage),

the quality of the ingredient is of utmost importance.

Quality can be assessed by:

color…is it the proper color

odor…does it smell correctly/pleasant

visual…are foreign objects present

If is has wrong color, has unpleasant odor, contains mold,

contains other objects/weeds, etc…the quality is low


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Hay Quality

The quality of hay can be assessed/evaluated via:

Maturity (stems/seed heads)

Spoilage (moldy/dusty)

Heat (odorous/dark color)

Content (objects/weeds)

Color (greenish)

Freshness (smells good)


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Hay Quality

Good (leafy/color/etc)

Questionable (stems/etc)

Mature (seed heads/etc)

Issues (color/heat{?}/etc)

Photos: Unknown Sources


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Forage/Pasture/Hay (leafy)

Red Clover

Lespedeza

Vetch

Photo: University of Kentucky

Photo: University of Kentucky

Photo: Unknown Source

Alfalfa

Photo: Unknown Source


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Forage/Pasture/Hay (grass)

Fescue

Haylage

Photos: Unknown Sources

Photo: University of Kentucky

Timothy


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Green Feed (pasture and chop)

Green Pasture (any forage)

Green Chop (fresh)

Photos: University of Kentucky


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Corn

Whole Ear

Shelled

Photos: University of Kentucky

Photo: Unknown Source

Gluten Meal


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Cottonseed

Photos: University of Kentucky

Whole

Hulls

Meal


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Millet

Photo: Unknown Source

Whole Plant

Photo: Unknown Source

Grain

(pearl variety)

Grain

(proso variety)

Photo: University of Kentucky


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Milo or Sorghum

Growing Plant

Grain

Photos: Unknown Sources

Photo: University of Kentucky

Plant Head

(close up)


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Oats

Grain

Whole Plant

Rolled

Photos: Unknown Sources


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Soybean

Pod

Photo: Unknown Source

Grain/Bean

Photo: University of Kentucky

Meal

Photo: University of Kentucky


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Wheat

Plant

Grain

Photos: University of Kentucky

Bran

Photo: Unknown Source


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Meals (various types)

Photos: University of Kentucky

Animal Source

Grain Source

Cottonseed

Meat & Bone

Feather

Corn Gluten

Fish

Soybean


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Minerals

Trace Mineral

(TM) Salt

Dicalcium

Phosophate

Deflourinated

Phosophate

Plain Salt

Steamed Bone Meal

Limestone

Photos: University of Kentucky


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Identify…

Red Clover

Photo: University of Kentucky


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Identify…

Ear Corn/Whole Ear Corn

Photo: Unknown Source


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Identify…

Whole Cottonseed

Photo: University of Kentucky


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Identify…

Oats: Whole Plant

Photo: Unknown Source


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Identify…

Timothy Grass

Photo: Unknown Source


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Identify…

Wheat: Whole Plant

Photo: Unknown Source


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Identify…

Fescue Grass

Photo: Unknown Source


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Identify…

Soybeans: Pods

Photo: Unknown Source


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Identify…

Alfalfa

Photo: University of Kentucky


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Identify…

Millet: Whole Plant

Photo: Unknown Source


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Identify…

Milo/Sorghum: Plant Head

Photo: Unknown Source


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Identify…

Shelled Corn

Photo: University of Kentucky


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Identify…

Oats: Grain

Photo: Unknown Source


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Identify…

Wheat: Grain

Photo: University of Kentucky


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Identify…

Cottonseed Hulls

Photo: University of Kentucky


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Identify…

Millet: Grain

Photo: University of Kentucky


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Identify…

Milo/Sorghum: Grain

Photo: University of Kentucky


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Identify…

Soybeans: Grain/Beans

Photo: University of Kentucky


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Identify…

Rolled Oats

Photo: Unknown Source


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Identify…

Photos: University of Kentucky

Meals: Plant Sources

In actual practice, identification is much easier due to the ability of the observer to check for identifiers such as cotton fibers, part of the grain, color of meal, smell of meal, and other similar factors.

Soybean

Cottonseed

Corn Gluten


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Identify…

Photos: University of Kentucky

Meals: Animal Sources

In actual practice, identification is much easier due to the ability of the observer to check for identifiers such as parts (feather pieces), color of meal, smell of meal (fishy), and other similar factors.

Meat & Bone

Feather

Fish


Identify49 l.jpg
Identify…

Trace Mineral

(TM) Salt

Dicalcium

Phosphate

Deflourinated

Phosphate

Plain Salt

Steamed Bone Meal

Limestone

Minerals

Photos: University of Kentucky


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Reply…

1. What is the main ingredient in this feed supplement?

Plant Protein Products

2. What is the active drug ingredient in this product?

Monensin

3.What is the intended use or purpose of this product?

Growing/Finishing Beef Cattle

Photo: Ohio State University


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Reply…

1. What is the minimum crude fat level of this product?

1.00%

2. What is the minimum crude protein level of this product?

52.00%

3. What is fiber content of this product?

Maximum of 10.00%

Photo: Ohio State University


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Identify…

Good (leafy/color/etc)

Questionable (stems/etc)

Mature (seed heads/etc)

Issues (color/heat{?}/etc)

Hay Quality

Photos: Unknown Sources


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Other Items

There are many other items that could have been included in this presentation; and maybe some of them should have been included, and maybe some of those that were included should have been excluded.

Regardless of your thoughts and opinions concerning the inclusion/exclusion of the various items, it can be agreed that consensus would be difficult to achieve.


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Other Items

Given the thoughts stated on the previous slide, it is recommended that additional items be identified for additional review and study.

Conducting an internet search for animal feeds, animal nutrition, forages, hay, pasture, or specific types of grains (barley, corn, milo/sorghum, oats, soybean, wheat, etc) is an excellent starting point.


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