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Turning Swords Into Plowshares Promoting Human Security and Tolerance in the Context of Terrorism in South Asia Badrinath Rao Kettering University Flint, Michigan USA The Scourge of Terrorism in India

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Turning Swords Into PlowsharesPromoting Human Security and Tolerance in the Context of Terrorism in South Asia

Badrinath Rao

Kettering University

Flint, Michigan

USA

the scourge of terrorism in india
The Scourge of Terrorism in India
  • In the last 15 years, India has been repeatedly attacked by Pakistan sponsored terrorist networks.
  • Targets include places of worship, trains, hotels, public spaces, etc.
  • Thousands have died. Thousands more have been injured.
escalating hostilities between india and pakistan
Escalating Hostilities Between India and Pakistan
  • Mumbai bomb blasts in March, 1993
  • 13 car bombs were exploded in different places in Mumbai.
  • 257 dead, 713 wounded.
  • ISI and Dawood Ibrahim were involved.
escalating hostilities between india and pakistan4
Escalating Hostilities Between India and Pakistan
  • Attack on India’s Parliament in Dec, 2001.
  • Random shooting by LeT and JeM militants.
  • 7 killed (including five militants) and 12 injured.
escalating hostilities between india and pakistan5
Escalating Hostilities Between India and Pakistan
  • Hijacking of Indian Airlines plane to Kandahar in Dec, 1999.
  • Indian Airlines flight IC 814 from Kathmandu to Delhi was hijacked.
  • 1 passenger stabbed
  • 3 JeM militants released from Indian custody.
escalating hostilities between india and pakistan6
Escalating Hostilities Between India and Pakistan
  • Bomb blast on Mumbai’s local train on 11 July, 2006.
  • 7 bombs were placed in pressure cookers which exploded over 11 minutes.
  • 209 dead, 700 injured
  • LeT and SIMI handiwork
escalating hostilities between india and pakistan7
Escalating Hostilities Between India and Pakistan
  • Attack on Akshardham temple in Gandhinagar on Sept 25, 2002
  • 2 terrorists killed 29 devotees and wounded 79.
  • Attack on Sankat Mochan temple in Varanasi, 2006
  • 15 dead, 60 injured
escalating hostilities between india and pakistan8
Escalating Hostilities Between India and Pakistan
  • Bomb blasts in Indian Embassy in Kabul on July 7, 2008.
  • Suicide car bombing
  • 58 dead and 141 injured.
escalating hostilities between india and pakistan9
Escalating Hostilities Between India and Pakistan
  • Mumbai terror attacks on November 26, 2008.
  • 8 places were attacked by Pak terrorists.
  • 173 killed and 308 wounded.
other forms of terrorism
Other Forms of Terrorism
  • Economic terrorism
  • Promoting illicit drug trade and narcotics smuggling
  • Offering enticements to alienated sections of the Indian Muslim community to subvert from within.
  • Covert support to other secessionist movements in India
india s response
India’s Response
  • Diplomacy
  • International pressure
  • Covert operations
  • Open threats
  • Back channel diplomacy
india s response12
India’s Response
  • Banning Muslim ‘terrorist’ groups
  • Draconian laws which overwhelmingly target Muslims
  • Harassment of innocent Muslim civilians
  • More repression and human rights abuses in Kashmir
the current thinking of indian elites
The Current Thinking of Indian Elites
  • Firm, determined response
  • Direct engagement of the ‘enemy’
  • Surgical strikes against Pakistan
  • An all-out, decisive war to ‘teach Pakistan a lesson’
the pakistani story
The Pakistani Story
  • Denial of any role in acts of terrorism
  • Attributing terrorism to ‘non-state actors’
  • Arguing that it is part of a ‘freedom struggle’ in Kashmir
  • Terrorism as a ‘spontaneous’ response to the ill-treatment of Muslims in India
  • Retaliation against the machinations of RAW in Pakistan
stalemate in indo pak ties
Stalemate in Indo-Pak Ties
  • Profound mutual distrust and recrimination
  • Growing demands for war and retaliation
  • Increased spending on security and defence related matters
domestic implications of the war rhetoric
Domestic Implications of the War Rhetoric
  • Rise of Hindu and Islamic fundamentalisms
  • Attacks on Muslims in India. Scapegoating of minorities.
  • Alienation of the minorities
  • Alarming erosion of civil liberties, secular ethos, and social inclusion.
domestic implications of the war rhetoric17
Domestic Implications of the War Rhetoric
  • Increasing Hindu militancy resulting in bomb blasts targeting Muslims
  • The increased popularity of the Taliban in Pakistan
  • Patronizing terror networks could backfire in Pakistan
the way ahead moving from state security to human security
The Way AheadMoving From State Security to Human Security
  • Recognize the ground realities
  • Promote human security
  • Vigorously pursue MDGs
  • Emphasize secular, skills-based education
the way ahead moving from state security to human security19
The Way AheadMoving From State Security to Human Security
  • Boost civic, not religious, nationalism
  • Underscore social inclusion and tolerance
  • Stress the common civilizational ties that bind India and Pakistan
the way ahead moving from state security to human security20
The Way AheadMoving From State Security to Human Security
  • Provide aid in exchange for firm assurances on curbing terrorism
  • Rally international opinion against state sponsored terrorism
  • Most important, promote bilateral trade and commerce
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