The dynamics of mass communication
Download
1 / 29

The Dynamics of Mass Communication - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 643 Views
  • Updated On :

The Dynamics of Mass Communication Seventh Edition Joseph R. Dominick Part 3 The Electronic Media Chapter 9 Motion Pictures Motion pictures and TV “work” because of two quirks of the human perceptual system: the phi phenomenon persistence of vision History of the Motion Picture

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The Dynamics of Mass Communication' - emily


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
The dynamics of mass communication l.jpg

The Dynamics ofMass Communication

SeventhEdition

Joseph R. Dominick


Slide2 l.jpg

Part 3

The Electronic Media


Slide3 l.jpg

Chapter 9

Motion Pictures


History of the motion picture l.jpg

Motion pictures and TV “work” because of two quirks of the human perceptual system:

the phi phenomenon

persistence of vision

History of the Motion Picture


Edison and early experiments l.jpg

Using a sprocket-feed device in 1889, Edison and his assistant Dickson invent the first practical movie camera and viewing device, a single-viewer system they call the Kinetescope.

Like radio, movie profits were first expected though sale of hardware, not the software.

In 1896 Edison realized his error and developed a mass projection device he calls the Vitascope.

Edison and Early Experiments


The nickelodeons l.jpg

Movie interest surges when they “tell a story.” assistant Dickson invent the first practical movie camera and viewing device, a single-viewer system they call the

First movies are filmed with a stationery camera, much like watching a stage production.

The Great Train Robbery is the first film to use roving camera angles and film editing techniques.

New 50-90 seat theaters, called Nickelodeons, meet rising demand for story-based films, charging 5 cents admission.

The Nickelodeons


Early films and birth of the mppc l.jpg

Early film experiments ( assistant Dickson invent the first practical movie camera and viewing device, a single-viewer system they call the Queen Elizabeth andBirth of a Nation), indicate that audiences are willing to pay premium prices for longer, better films.

In 1910s, top film firms form the Motion Picture Patents Company to stop competitors; the move backfires as independent producers move to Hollywood. The MPPC is dead by 1917.

Early Films and Birth of the MPPC


The star system l.jpg

Producers learn that the public identifies with recognizable “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).

Early stars join to form United Artists Studio.

Public demands more comfortable and elaborate theaters in order to sit through longer films

The Star System


Consolidation and growth l.jpg
Consolidation and Growth “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).

  • Film makers work to insure high profits by taking over all three divisions of the industry:

    • Production

    • Distribution

    • Exhibition

  • The “Block Booking” system helps insure a steady market for film makers


Roaring 20s debuts film sound l.jpg
Roaring 20s Debuts Film Sound “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).

  • The Jazz Singer, the first film with sound, opens in1927 and the silent film era ends almost overnight.

  • Hollywood’s lifestyle excesses tempt government censorship; industry avoids that by forming MPPDA.

  • Film’s now costlier due to move to make bigger, better films, rising salaries and sound.

  • Depression era cuts profits; industry counters with introduction of double featuresandTechnicolor.


The studio years 1930 1950 l.jpg
The Studio Years “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).1930 - 1950

  • Height of film studios: MGM, RKO, Universal, Warner Bros., 20th Century Fox, Paramount, UA, and Columbia.

  • Back lots expand; musicals, comedy genres strong; film stars groomed; “golden film” era: Gone With the Wind, The Wizard of Oz, Stagecoach, and Citizen Kane.

  • In 1948, courts order studios to stop block booking and monopoly practices; industry reacts by dropping theater exhibition control.


Hollywood reacts to tv l.jpg
Hollywood Reacts to TV “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).

Believing that TV would hurt profits, the film industry tries to protect itself with several measures:

  • Studios refuse to advertise films on TV.

  • Films are not permitted to run on TV.

  • Film stars forbidden to appear on TV shows.

  • New film novelties introduced

    • 3-D

    • Cinerama and Cinemascope

    • “Spectacle” films

    • adult themes (then unsuitable for early TV)


Film in the 1960s and 1970s l.jpg
Film in the 1960s and 1970s “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).

  • Hollywood finally sees mutual advantages in teaming with television industry; the number of made-for-TV films and made-in-Hollywood TV series increase sharply.

  • The power of major studios erodes quickly with rise of independent producers and “free agent” actors.

  • Industry introduces film rating system (G, GP, R, X), which switches content regulation burden to audiences.


1970s film industry trends l.jpg
1970s Film Industry Trends “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).

  • film revenues and budgets increase

  • debut of blockbuster films

  • small-budget films can be big hits, investments

  • market research increases as film tool

  • close ties with TV continue

  • rating system adds PG-13, X replaces NC-17


Contemporary film trends l.jpg
Contemporary Film Trends “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).

. attendance levels out; ticket prices, profits higher

. Pay Per View, video/DVD rentals eclipse box office as a film’s primary revenue source

. more theater “screens” than ever, newer ones boast stadium seating and digital sound

. 7 firms dominate industry: Sony, Disney, Warner Brothers, Fox, MGM, Universal, and Paramount


Motion pictures in the digital age l.jpg
Motion Pictures in the Digital Age “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).

Though still in its infancy, digital film technology promises to make significant industry-wide changes, among them:

  • Production: films will soon be shot, edited digitally

  • Distribution: multiple film copy costs disappear, and electronic distribution methods replace physical

  • Exhibition: expensive new projectors will be needed


Netplexes and film napsterization l.jpg
Netplexes and Film Napsterization “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).

  • Films on the Internet?

    Technically possible, but in the near future people won’t have bandwidth power to make it practical.

  • “Sharing” films, Napster-like?

    Doubtful. Time consuming, little money savings, hard-disk storage limitations, big legal hurdles.


Defining features of motion pictures l.jpg
DEFINING FEATURES OF “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).MOTION PICTURES

  • high production, marketing and distribution costs

  • dominated by big conglomerates

  • most expensive mass medium on a per-title basis

  • film has strong “art form” aesthetic dimension

  • going to movies is still a “social experience”


Organizational breakdown of the film industry l.jpg
ORGANIZATIONAL BREAKDOWN OF THE FILM INDUSTRY “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).

  • Production

  • Distribution

  • Exhibition


Film industry ownership l.jpg
FILM INDUSTRY OWNERSHIP “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).

As of 2000, the top seven studios and owners were:

  • Walt Disney Company (Touchstone and Buena Vista)

  • AOL/Time Warner (Warner Brothers)

  • Paramount (Viacom)

  • Sony (Sony Pictures Entertainment)

  • Vivendi-Universal (French owned)

  • News Corporation (20th Century Fox)

  • MGM/UA (MGM and United Artists)


Slide21 l.jpg

PRODUCING MOTION PICTURES “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).

  • TYPICAL STUDIO DEPARTMENTS

  • Though differences exist between one studio and another, a typical studio would have three departments:

    • Distribution

    • Film production division

    • TV production division


Slide22 l.jpg

The Movie Making Process “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).

  • The three distinct phrases in the process are:

    • Preproduction

    • Production

    • Postproduction


Slide23 l.jpg

ECONOMICS “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).

  • A typical film revenue breakdown might look something like this:

    • DVD/cassette sales 28 %

    • Domestic box office 22

    • Cable 22

    • Foreign box office 20

    • Broadcast TV 4

    • Other 4


Slide24 l.jpg

Financing Films “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).

  • Money to finance a film can come in four ways:

    • direct loan from distributor

    • pickup

    • limited partnership

    • joint venture agreement


Slide25 l.jpg

Dealing with the Exhibitors “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).

  • Distributors and exhibitors must agree on the terms under which a film showing will occur. Three common types of financial agreements are:

    • split percentage

    • sliding scale

    • 90-10 deal

  • Concession sale stands can also bring in up to 90 percent of a theater’s total profit


  • Promoting the film opening l.jpg
    Promoting the Film Opening “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).

    • The first three days of a film’s opening are crucial; if it does not do well then, it generally never will. Some of the more common ways of promoting films include:

    • pre-opening media promotion and advertising blitz

    • trailers (film clips from movie) in theater’s “Coming Attractions”

    • heavy Internet exposure using trailers and sound scores


    Feedback l.jpg
    Feedback “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).

    • Films can generate feedback in three common ways:

    • Box Office figures monitored by Variety magazine

    • Market Researchusing “focus group” audiences

    • Film Audiences though final audiences are rarely used


    Cable and video the hollywood revenue connection l.jpg
    Cable and Video: “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).The Hollywood Revenue Connection

    • Film sales and rentals have leveled off, though they accounted for $20 billion in 2000 (sales $12B, rentals $8B).

    • 6 million people rent films daily; 12 million go to the theater.

    • DVD sales and rentals will reach parity with videos in 2003.

    • Pay-Per-View market up (30 million homes now have PPV).

    • Producers also get revenue from premium cable channels such as HBO, Showtime, and Cinemax.


    End of chapter 9 motion pictures l.jpg
    End of Chapter 9 “star” actors; studios capitalize on the draw power of stars (Charlie Chaplin, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford).Motion Pictures


    ad