Supply chain analysis of poultry in bangladesh
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Supply Chain Analysis of Poultry in Bangladesh. Transporters. Egg Hatcheries. Feed Producers. Layer Farms. Broiler Farms. Fish Feeds/Fertilizers. Egg Wholesalers. Broiler Wholesalers. Restaurants. Egg Retailers. Broiler Retailers. Ready Food.

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Supply Chain Analysis of Poultry in Bangladesh

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Supply chain analysis of poultry in bangladesh

Supply Chain Analysis of Poultryin Bangladesh


Supply chain analysis of poultry in bangladesh

Transporters

Egg Hatcheries

Feed Producers

Layer Farms

Broiler Farms

Fish Feeds/Fertilizers

Egg Wholesalers

Broiler Wholesalers

Restaurants

Egg Retailers

Broiler Retailers

Ready Food

Introduction: Supply Chain for Commercial Poultry


Supply chain analysis of poultry in bangladesh

Rural Households

Transporters

Rural Assembly Markets

Beparis/Farias

Rural Wholesalers

Urban Wholesalers

Sub-urban Retailers

Urban Retailers

Restaurants

Ready Food

Introduction (contd.): Supply Chain for Backyard Chickens


Literature review

Literature Review

No integrated supply chain analysis of poultry.

A few studies covered some particular aspect of the chain in isolation.

Some focused on economic aspects

(Rahman, Sorensen, Jensen, and Dolberg, 1997; Newnham, 2000; Quasem, 2001; Dolberg, 2003; Islam, 2003)

A few focused on the epidemiological aspects

(Sil, Das, Islam, and Rahman, 2002; USAID-ATDP, 2005)


Objectives of the study

Objectives of the Study

In understanding the supply chain of poultry, this study examines:

Marketing channels and participants

Costs, margins and profits associated with marketing and the process of price formation

Possible channels through which poultry diseases spread and threaten bird and human lives.


Methodological approach

Methodological Approach

  • Five regions were selected based on poultry population: Chittagong, Comilla, Dhaka, Dinajpur and Jessore;

  • Quantitative techniques (interviews)

    • (i) on households,

    • (ii) beparis/farias,

    • (iii) wholesalers’ agents,

    • (iv) suburban retailers,

    • (v) urban wholesalers,

    • (vi) urban retailers of backyard chickensAND

    • (vii) poultry feed firms,

    • (viii) poultry hatcheries, (ix-x) broiler and layer farms, (xi-xiv) wholesalers and retailers of both broilers and eggs of commercial poultry


Methodological approach1

Methodological Approach

  • Qualitative information through

    • focus group discussions (FGDs),

    • key informant interviews (KIIs),

    • and observations of the markets on the market chains

  • BUT NOT the Commercial Production Process.


Results commercial poultry i feed producers

Results: Commercial Poultry I: Feed Producers

  • Ten feed mills surveyed: 3 in Chittagong and 7 in Dhaka;

  • Cleaning practices in feed mills are not satisfactory;

  • A few feed mills have no designated area for loading of feed and unloading of input supplies;

  • Of those sites selected, 80% of the feed mills in Dhaka and 33% in Chittagong use different antibiotics in feed formulation. In addition, a significant of feed mills in Dhaka use enzymes and growth promoters;


Commercial poultry ii hatcheries

Commercial Poultry II: Hatcheries

  • Six hatcheries surveyed: 3 in Chittagong and 3 in Dhaka;

  • 33% of the hatcheries in Dhaka use antibiotics;

  • DOCs are susceptible to Ranikhet, Gumbro (IBD), loose motion, diarrhea, Coryza, Salmonella, Bronchitis, etc.

  • 66% of the hatcheries throw un-hatched eggs, dead chicks into nearby pit;


Commercial poultry iii broiler farms

Commercial Poultry III: Broiler Farms

  • 50 commercial broiler farms in Chittagong, Comilla, Dhaka, Dinajpur, and Jessore surveyed;

  • Hardly have any “No Admittance” sign posted;

  • 50% of the farms in Chittagong and Jessore and 10% in Dinajpur are visited by migratory birds;

  • Have no designated area for loading or unloading;


Commercial poultry iv layer farms

Commercial Poultry IV: Layer Farms

  • 30 farms: 10 in Dhaka and 5 each in Chittagong, Comilla, Dinajpur, and Jessore surveyed;

  • 50% of the layer farms do not have strong fencing around them;

  • Abuse of antibiotics;

  • Less than half of the layer farms in all regions have hand washing facility


Marketing chain of commercial poultry i egg wholesalers

Marketing Chain of Commercial Poultry I: Egg Wholesalers

  • 24 egg wholesalers: 6 each in Dhaka and Chittagong and 4 each in Comilla, Dinajpur, and Jessore surveyed;

  • Eggs are transported mostly by vans or other means;

  • receive eggs daily and mix the unsold and newly arrived ones together;

  • Majority of the vehicles are not cleaned properly;

  • wash hands only before eating and after they return home


Marketing chain of commercial poultry ii egg retailers

Marketing Chain of Commercial Poultry II: Egg Retailers

  • Total 26 egg retailers in five regions;

  • Transportation of eggs varies in different surveyed regions; pickup vans, trucks and sometimes by hand

  • Receive eggs daily and mix the unsold and newly arrived eggs together;

  • Regular cleaning of transport vehicles and crates is rare;

  • Very seldom a small percent uses masks and towels;

  • Frequency of using soap during hand washing is very low


Marketing chain of commercial poultry iii broiler wholesalers

Marketing Chain of Commercial Poultry III: Broiler Wholesalers

  • Total 20 broiler wholesalers in five regions;

  • Buy chickens from commercial broiler farms and sell them to urban broiler retailers;

  • Mix chickens that arrived in the shop on different days;

  • 20% of them bury the carcass and 5% sell them;

  • Refuse is sold to the fish farmers. Blood and other excreta are thrown into the drain or garbage bin;


Marketing chain of commercial poultry iv broiler retailers

Marketing Chain of Commercial Poultry IV: Broiler Retailers

  • 44 broiler retailers–12 in Dhaka and 8 each in Chittagong, Comilla, Jessore and Dinajpur;

  • Mostly Dhaka retailers clean cages/pens daily;

  • Sick chickens are sold to the customers

  • 25% bury dead birds and 18% throw into the drains;

  • Half throw refuse into dustbin and the rest sell them;

  • Use of soap (disinfectant) is infrequent


Marketing chain of backyard poultry i households

Marketing Chain of Backyard Poultry I: Households

  • 132 households in five regions;

  • 11 or fewer chickens and 5 or less ducks per household;

  • 20-50% households keep poultry in the house where they live;

  • female members of the family look after the poultry;

  • Give the carcass to the dogs or cats to devour


Marketing chain of backyard poultry ii beparis farias

Marketing Chain of Backyard Poultry II: Beparis/Farias

  • 55 Beparis/Farias in five regions;

  • collect poultry from door to door and transport to the market either by rickshaw or rickshaw van

  • 70% of the B/F are able to sell the dead birds to the customers

  • A majority of the B/F are somehow convinced that AI is not risk for them;


Marketing chain of backyard poultry iii rural wholesalers agents

Marketing Chain of Backyard Poultry III:Rural Wholesalers/Agents

  • 22 Rural Wholesalers/Agents in five regions;

  • Collect chickens from B/F or from rural assembly markets;

  • Chickens are kept in bamboo made cages in the shops;

  • Chickens are transported by vans, trucks or rickshaws;

  • No idea about the cleaning practice of vehicles as most of them use rented vehicles;

  • 41% throw dead chickens are thrown into the drains. It is not clear what is done with the rest


Marketing chain of backyard poultry iv suburban retailers

Marketing Chain of Backyard Poultry IV: Suburban Retailers

  • 55 Suburban retailers in five regions;

  • Receive their supplies usually through rickshaws or rickshaw vans or by hands;

  • No idea on cleaning as mostly they use hired vehicles;

  • Very seldom use mask as this would make customers suspicious

  • Retailers in Dhaka are more serious than others in health and hygiene

  • 70% slaughter sick or dead chickens and keep them for selling;


Marketing chain of backyard poultry v urban wholesalers

Marketing Chain of Backyard Poultry V: Urban Wholesalers

  • 25 Urban wholesalers in five regions;

  • collect chickens from rural wholesalers/agents and sell them to urban retailers and sometimes directly to restaurants

  • Daily cleaning of the market areas;

  • 40% clean cages or pens daily;

  • 85% sell sick chickens to the retailers;


Marketing chain of backyard poultry vi urban retailers

Marketing Chain of Backyard Poultry VI: Urban Retailers

  • 110 Urban retailers in five regions;

  • Most of them are medium or small;

  • Keep the birds in their shops for a day or two in bamboo made cages;

  • Mostly transported by rickshaws or rickshaw vans;

  • Cages or pens are cleaned infrequently; even 15% in Chittagong think that it is not necessary

  • Less than half reported cleaning of vehicles;

  • More than 80% sell sick chickens


Interlocking structures throughout bangladesh

Interlocking structures throughout Bangladesh

Feed Producers

Hatcheries

Broiler Farms

Layer Farms

Egg Wholesalers

Egg Retailers

Beparis/Ferias

Rural Agents


Costs and returns of poultry

Costs and Returns of Poultry

  • Poultry farming is a highly profitable activity.

  • Owners of hatcheries, broiler and layer farms invest between 1 and 12 million taka and earn rate of returns close to and sometimes over 100 per cent.

  • At the backyard level an average poor household can earn 10 times of the initial investment.

  • Viewed from the size of the investment, commercial poultry farming does not appear to be pro-poor.

  • In contrast, backyard poultry needs hardly any financial capital and hence can make dent to poverty alleviation.


Policy recommendations

Policy Recommendations

  • Bio-security needs to be improved

  • Personnel involved in poultry operations should follow the standard hygiene practices

  • Use of uncovered vans should be restricted and transport vehicles should be routinely disinfected;

  • Use of antibiotics, enzymes and growth promoters has to be monitored;

  • Need for diagnostic facilities at in different regions;


Supply chain analysis of poultry in bangladesh

!!!Thank you for your attention!!!


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