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Seafood Issues During Spills Painting by Raul Colon for Time Magazine Seafood Contamination: Threat to Public Health Photo: Tilapia.com Photo: Newfoundland & Labrador Dept. of Trade & Technology Seafood & Fisheries Issues during Oil Spills: What We’re Gonna Talk About

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slide8

Photo: Tilapia.com

Photo: Newfoundland & Labrador Dept. of Trade & Technology

seafood fisheries issues during oil spills what we re gonna talk about
Seafood & Fisheries Issues during Oil Spills:What We’re Gonna Talk About
  • Introduction & background
  • What’s at risk
  • Fisheries impacts in international spills
  • A little science related to tainting
  • Sensory assessment
  • A couple of U.S. spill examples
  • Reference materials
  • Overview of regional experiences
seafood fisheries issues during spills so what s the big deal
Seafood &Fisheries Issues During Spills:So, What’s the Big Deal?

Oil spills can threaten:

  • Public health
  • Fisheries & associated economies
  • The resources themselves
  • Regional social and ethnocultural fabric
seafood fisheries issues during spills so what s the big deal12
Seafood &Fisheries Issues During Spills:So, What’s the Big Deal?

Oil spills can threaten:

  • Public health
  • Fisheries & associated economies
  • The resources themselves
  • Regional social and ethnocultural fabric
slide14

Food safety in the American consciousness…

Photo: W. Eugene Smith, 1972

Photo: Food Safety Network

seafood fisheries issues during spills so what s the big deal16
Seafood &Fisheries Issues During Spills:So, What’s the Big Deal?

Oil spills can threaten:

  • Public health
  • Fisheries & associated economies
  • The resources themselves
  • Regional social and ethnocultural fabric
oil spill economics perceived quality demand effect pqde
Oil Spill Economics:“Perceived Quality Demand Effect (PQDE)”
  • Significance of the PQDE depends on the extent to which buyers perceive that fish may have been tainted:
    • Publicity may raise concerns of buyers or consumers even if no tainted fish are offered for sale
    • Even a small amount of uncertainty may affect demand for fish from a region where a spill has occurred—especially if buyers have alternative sources of supply.
    • PQDE can be reduced or eliminated by:
      • Ensuring that tainted fish are not offered for sale
      • Ensuring that buyers know that tainted fish are not being offered for sale

Source: G. Knapp, University of Alaska-Anchorage

seafood fisheries issues during spills so what s the big deal21
Seafood &Fisheries Issues During Spills:So, What’s the Big Deal?

Oil spills can threaten:

  • Public health
  • Fisheries & associated economies
  • The resources themselves
  • Regional social and ethnocultural fabric
slide22

Photo: City of Oklahoma City

North Cape photos: Frank Csulak, NOAA

north cape spill 1996 calculated resource mortalities
North Cape Spill, 1996Calculated Resource Mortalities
  • Marine environment
    • 9 million lobsters
    • 19 million surf clams
    • 4.2 million fish
    • >500,000 kg worms, crabs, mussels, sea stars
  • Salt ponds:
    • 7 million worms & amphipods
    • > 1 million crabs, shrimp, clams oysters
    • 500,000 fish
seafood fisheries issues during spills so what s the big deal25
Seafood &Fisheries Issues During Spills:So, What’s the Big Deal?

Oil spills can threaten:

  • Public health
  • Fisheries & associated economies
  • The resources themselves
  • Regional social and ethnocultural fabric
slide26

Photo: C.A. Woody, USGS

Photo: Alaska Museum of History & Art

seafood contamination during spills tainting
Seafood Contamination During Spills:Tainting

Tainting = abnormal odor or flavor

  • Introduced into seafood from external sources
  • Excludes natural byproducts of decomposition from storage & microbial contamination; taint is derived from materials present in the surroundings
  • American Society for Testing & Materials (ASTM) and International Standards Organisation (ISO) standards exist for tainting and assessment of tainting
petroleum tainting a few measurements in the lab davis et al 2002
Petroleum Tainting:A Few Measurements in the Lab(Davis et al., 2002)
  • Tainting thresholds (Forties crude oil):
    • Trout 0.10 mg/L
    • Salmon 0.11 mg/L
    • Crab >7.7 mg/L
    • Mussels 0.03 mg/L
  • Tainting occurs rapidly in fish
    • Detected in fish within 30 min. of exposure to 20 & 31 mg/L crude oil in water
  • Loss of taint can be slow: weeks to months
  • In tainted salmon, naphthalenes were the most prevalent PAHs
slide39

Correlating Taint & Chemistry:

T/V Braer & Pen-Reared Salmon

50

100

40

80

30

60

Percent distribution of naphthalenes

Percent taint positives

40

20

10

20

0

0

0

50

100

150

200

Days since grounding

Source: Whittle et al. (1997)

exxon valdez 1989
Exxon Valdez—1989

Photo: © M. Rosenberg

guidance on sensory testing monitoring of seafood during oil spills
Guidance on Sensory Testing & Monitoring of Seafood During Oil Spills
  • Authored by Terri Reilly (NOAA/NMFS Seafood Inspection Program) & Roberta York (Canadian Food Inspection Agency)
  • Systematic “how to” document for conducting sensory testing
guidance on sensory testing monitoring of seafood during oil spills45
Guidance on Sensory Testing & Monitoring of Seafood During Oil Spills
  • Scope & Use
  • Sample collection & preservation
  • Selecting test methods
  • Selecting, training & validating assessors
  • Facilities requirements
  • Sample handling, prep & presentation
  • Sensory evaluation protocols
  • Data analysis & decision criteria
oil chemistry as a tool for assessing seafood risk
Oil Chemistry as a Tool for Assessing Seafood Risk
  • Advantages
    • Quantitative
    • Confirms that oil is source of taint
    • Very low detection limits
  • Disadvantages
    • Expensive
    • Requires long lead time
    • Must feed into risk assessment…”So what?” question
oil pahs human risk assessment toxicity equivalency approach
Oil (PAHs) & Human Risk Assessment:Toxicity Equivalency Approach
  • Designed by USFDA, used during Exxon Valdez, based on carcinogenic endpoint
    • Additional cancer risk considered to be “acceptable” by risk managers
  • Risk is calculated from body weight, consumption rate, cancer potency of contaminant, exposure duration
  • Oiled seafood risk is based on benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) because BaP is known carcinogen and empirical data exist
  • Toxicity of other PAHs is based on BaP toxicity—”BaP equivalents”
oil pahs human risk assessment bap equivalency caveats
Oil (PAHs) & Human Risk Assessment:BaP Equivalency Caveats
  • Based on cancer risk
  • Based on animal studies
  • If insufficient toxicity data for a given PAH exists to calculate a BaP potency, that PAH is omitted
    • Few of the PAHs we measure are included in the BaP calculation
    • Most PAH cancer potencies are for pyrogenic (combustion-sourced) vs. petrogenic (oil-sourced) hydrocarbons
  • Different equivalency values have been used at different spills—no standardization
north cape spill fishery closure facts
North Cape Spill Fishery Closure Facts
  • Rhode Island Department of Health closed 200 sq. mi. of commercial fishery
  • Closure coordinated with USEPA and NOAA/NMFS, which closed federal fishing grounds under Magnuson Act
    • First federal fishery closure during oil spill
  • Sensory panels formed to evaluate lobsters & clams
  • Full reopening of RI fisheries not completed until mid-June (five months)
selendang ayu commercial fisheries workgroup process decola et al 2006
Selendang Ayu Commercial Fisheries Workgroup Process(DeCola et al., 2006)
  • Background: Alaska has “zero tolerance” policy for seafood contamination during oil spills
    • Uncertainty about management of fisheries during spills (no standards and many jurisdictions)
  • Objectives: assessment & management of risks, avoidance or minimization of fishing closures, bans & exclusion zones
  • Workgroup members: fisheries managers, spill responders, local fishing & processing reps, public
    • Membership included reps who had authority to make decisions and commit resources
slide62

Ex-value of seafood delivered to Unalaska/Dutch Harbor exceeds $2 billion

Processing sector provides 6000-10000 seasonal jobs

selendang ayu commercial fisheries workgroup risk assessment communication decola at al 2006
Selendang Ayu Commercial Fisheries Workgroup:Risk Assessment & Communication(DeCola at al. 2006)
  • Assessment
    • Water quality sampling
    • Enhanced seafood inspections
    • Observations from spill responders
    • Observations from fishermen
  • Communication
    • Notices to fleet
    • Public meetings
    • Website
    • Workgroup members —> constituents
selendang ayu commercial fisheries workgroup process decola et al 200664
Selendang Ayu Commercial Fisheries Workgroup Process(DeCola et al., 2006)
  • (Read the paper)
  • All Bering Sea fisheries opened as scheduled
  • One local crab fishery adjacent to the spill site was closed
  • Sampling for tarballs resulted in only rare positive hits
  • Sampling for oil in intakes and holds resulted in no hits
  • And…a new metric…

So…did it work??

slide66

“The Discovery Channel show ‘Deadliest Catch’ filmed their first season during the Bering Sea crab season in 2005, and the fact that the potential for contamination from the Selendang Ayu was never even mentioned in the storyline is a good measure of how effectively the program went and how little hysteria resulted in the public arena.”

DeCola et al. (2006)

yender et al 2002
Yender et al. (2002)
  • Intro & background
  • Assessing the likelihood of contamination
  • Monitoring for contamination
  • Risk assessment
  • Risk communication
seafood fisheries issues during oil spills references on the cd
Seafood & Fisheries Issues during Oil Spills:References on the CD
  • Managing Seafood Safety after an Oil Spill (Yender et al., 2002)
  • Guidance on Sensory Testing and Monitoring of Seafood … Following an Oil Spill (Reilly and York, 2001)
  • Closing and reopening fisheries following oil spills (Mauseth et al. 1997)
  • Trends in rescinding seafood harvest closures following oil spills (Mauseth and Challenger, 2001)
  • The M/V Selendang Ayu Commercial Fisheries Workgroup Process (DeCola et al. 2006)
  • Oil Spills and Fisheries Markets: Potential Effects and Mitigation Strategies (Knapp 2005)
  • Experimental tainting of marine fish…with comparison to the Braer oil spill (Davis et al., 2002)
  • …and a few other miscellaneous odds and ends that you will be glad to have the next time there’s a spill with a threatened fishery…
seafood fisheries issues during oil spills what we done talked about
Seafood & Fisheries Issues during Oil Spills:What We Done Talked About
  • Introduction & background
  • What’s at risk
  • Fisheries impacts in international spills
  • A little science related to tainting
  • Sensory assessment
  • A couple of U.S. spill examples
  • Reference materials
  • Overview of regional experiences
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