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Seafood Issues During Spills Painting by Raul Colon for Time Magazine Seafood Contamination: Threat to Public Health Photo: Tilapia.com Photo: Newfoundland & Labrador Dept. of Trade & Technology Seafood & Fisheries Issues during Oil Spills: What We’re Gonna Talk About

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Seafood Contamination: Threat to Public Health


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Photo: Tilapia.com

Photo: Newfoundland & Labrador Dept. of Trade & Technology


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Seafood & Fisheries Issues during Oil Spills:What We’re Gonna Talk About

  • Introduction & background

  • What’s at risk

  • Fisheries impacts in international spills

  • A little science related to tainting

  • Sensory assessment

  • A couple of U.S. spill examples

  • Reference materials

  • Overview of regional experiences


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Seafood &Fisheries Issues During Spills:So, What’s the Big Deal?

Oil spills can threaten:

  • Public health

  • Fisheries & associated economies

  • The resources themselves

  • Regional social and ethnocultural fabric


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Seafood &Fisheries Issues During Spills:So, What’s the Big Deal?

Oil spills can threaten:

  • Public health

  • Fisheries & associated economies

  • The resources themselves

  • Regional social and ethnocultural fabric



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Food safety in the American consciousness…

Photo: W. Eugene Smith, 1972

Photo: Food Safety Network


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Seafood &Fisheries Issues During Spills:So, What’s the Big Deal?

Oil spills can threaten:

  • Public health

  • Fisheries & associated economies

  • The resources themselves

  • Regional social and ethnocultural fabric



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Oil Spill Economics: Industry“Perceived Quality Demand Effect (PQDE)”

  • Significance of the PQDE depends on the extent to which buyers perceive that fish may have been tainted:

    • Publicity may raise concerns of buyers or consumers even if no tainted fish are offered for sale

    • Even a small amount of uncertainty may affect demand for fish from a region where a spill has occurred—especially if buyers have alternative sources of supply.

    • PQDE can be reduced or eliminated by:

      • Ensuring that tainted fish are not offered for sale

      • Ensuring that buyers know that tainted fish are not being offered for sale

Source: G. Knapp, University of Alaska-Anchorage


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Seafood &Fisheries Issues During Spills Industry:So, What’s the Big Deal?

Oil spills can threaten:

  • Public health

  • Fisheries & associated economies

  • The resources themselves

  • Regional social and ethnocultural fabric


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Photo: City of Oklahoma City Industry

North Cape photos: Frank Csulak, NOAA


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North Cape Industry Spill, 1996Calculated Resource Mortalities

  • Marine environment

    • 9 million lobsters

    • 19 million surf clams

    • 4.2 million fish

    • >500,000 kg worms, crabs, mussels, sea stars

  • Salt ponds:

    • 7 million worms & amphipods

    • > 1 million crabs, shrimp, clams oysters

    • 500,000 fish


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Salmon photos: Jeep Rice, NOAA Industry

Oil Impacts to Larval Herring & Salmon

Herring photos: Mark Carls, NOAA


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Seafood &Fisheries Issues During Spills Industry:So, What’s the Big Deal?

Oil spills can threaten:

  • Public health

  • Fisheries & associated economies

  • The resources themselves

  • Regional social and ethnocultural fabric


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Photo: C.A. Woody, USGS Industry

Photo: Alaska Museum of History & Art



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Nakhodka Industry Spill, 1997


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Japan— IndustryNakhodka Spill, 1997


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Spain— IndustryPrestige Spill, 2002


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Physiology of Oil Exposure Industry(Krahn and Stein, 1998)


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Seafood Contamination During Spills Industry:Tainting

Tainting = abnormal odor or flavor

  • Introduced into seafood from external sources

  • Excludes natural byproducts of decomposition from storage & microbial contamination; taint is derived from materials present in the surroundings

  • American Society for Testing & Materials (ASTM) and International Standards Organisation (ISO) standards exist for tainting and assessment of tainting


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Petroleum Tainting: IndustryA Few Measurements in the Lab(Davis et al., 2002)

  • Tainting thresholds (Forties crude oil):

    • Trout 0.10 mg/L

    • Salmon 0.11 mg/L

    • Crab >7.7 mg/L

    • Mussels 0.03 mg/L

  • Tainting occurs rapidly in fish

    • Detected in fish within 30 min. of exposure to 20 & 31 mg/L crude oil in water

  • Loss of taint can be slow: weeks to months

  • In tainted salmon, naphthalenes were the most prevalent PAHs


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Correlating Taint & Chemistry: Industry

T/V Braer & Pen-Reared Salmon

50

100

40

80

30

60

Percent distribution of naphthalenes

Percent taint positives

40

20

10

20

0

0

0

50

100

150

200

Days since grounding

Source: Whittle et al. (1997)


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Exxon Valdez Industry—1989

Photo: © M. Rosenberg


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Selendang Ayu Industry—2005



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Guidance on Sensory Testing & Monitoring of Seafood During Oil Spills

  • Authored by Terri Reilly (NOAA/NMFS Seafood Inspection Program) & Roberta York (Canadian Food Inspection Agency)

  • Systematic “how to” document for conducting sensory testing


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Guidance on Sensory Testing & Monitoring of Seafood During Oil Spills

  • Scope & Use

  • Sample collection & preservation

  • Selecting test methods

  • Selecting, training & validating assessors

  • Facilities requirements

  • Sample handling, prep & presentation

  • Sensory evaluation protocols

  • Data analysis & decision criteria


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Oil Chemistry as a Tool for Assessing Seafood Risk Oil Spills

  • Advantages

    • Quantitative

    • Confirms that oil is source of taint

    • Very low detection limits

  • Disadvantages

    • Expensive

    • Requires long lead time

    • Must feed into risk assessment…”So what?” question


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Oil (PAHs) & Human Risk Assessment: Oil SpillsToxicity Equivalency Approach

  • Designed by USFDA, used during Exxon Valdez, based on carcinogenic endpoint

    • Additional cancer risk considered to be “acceptable” by risk managers

  • Risk is calculated from body weight, consumption rate, cancer potency of contaminant, exposure duration

  • Oiled seafood risk is based on benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) because BaP is known carcinogen and empirical data exist

  • Toxicity of other PAHs is based on BaP toxicity—”BaP equivalents”


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Oil (PAHs) & Human Risk Assessment: Oil SpillsBaP Equivalency Caveats

  • Based on cancer risk

  • Based on animal studies

  • If insufficient toxicity data for a given PAH exists to calculate a BaP potency, that PAH is omitted

    • Few of the PAHs we measure are included in the BaP calculation

    • Most PAH cancer potencies are for pyrogenic (combustion-sourced) vs. petrogenic (oil-sourced) hydrocarbons

  • Different equivalency values have been used at different spills—no standardization


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North Cape Oil Spills spill (1996)



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Barge Oil SpillsNorth Cape:Potential Location of Oil Above Background 19-25 January 1996


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North Cape Oil Spills:Closing a Fishery…



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North Cape Oil Spills:Re-Opening a Closed Fishery…



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North Cape Oil Spills Spill Fishery Closure Facts

  • Rhode Island Department of Health closed 200 sq. mi. of commercial fishery

  • Closure coordinated with USEPA and NOAA/NMFS, which closed federal fishing grounds under Magnuson Act

    • First federal fishery closure during oil spill

  • Sensory panels formed to evaluate lobsters & clams

  • Full reopening of RI fisheries not completed until mid-June (five months)


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M/V Oil Spills Selendang Ayu2004-2005


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Selendang Ayu Oil Spills Commercial Fisheries Workgroup Process(DeCola et al., 2006)

  • Background: Alaska has “zero tolerance” policy for seafood contamination during oil spills

    • Uncertainty about management of fisheries during spills (no standards and many jurisdictions)

  • Objectives: assessment & management of risks, avoidance or minimization of fishing closures, bans & exclusion zones

  • Workgroup members: fisheries managers, spill responders, local fishing & processing reps, public

    • Membership included reps who had authority to make decisions and commit resources


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Ex-value of seafood delivered to Unalaska/Dutch Harbor exceeds $2 billion

Processing sector provides 6000-10000 seasonal jobs


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Selendang Ayu exceeds $2 billion Commercial Fisheries Workgroup:Risk Assessment & Communication(DeCola at al. 2006)

  • Assessment

    • Water quality sampling

    • Enhanced seafood inspections

    • Observations from spill responders

    • Observations from fishermen

  • Communication

    • Notices to fleet

    • Public meetings

    • Website

    • Workgroup members —> constituents


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Selendang Ayu exceeds $2 billion Commercial Fisheries Workgroup Process(DeCola et al., 2006)

  • (Read the paper)

  • All Bering Sea fisheries opened as scheduled

  • One local crab fishery adjacent to the spill site was closed

  • Sampling for tarballs resulted in only rare positive hits

  • Sampling for oil in intakes and holds resulted in no hits

  • And…a new metric…

So…did it work??


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“The Discovery Channel show ‘Deadliest Catch’ filmed their first season during the Bering Sea crab season in 2005, and the fact that the potential for contamination from the Selendang Ayu was never even mentioned in the storyline is a good measure of how effectively the program went and how little hysteria resulted in the public arena.”

DeCola et al. (2006)


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Yender et al. (2002) their first season during the Bering Sea crab season in 2005, and the fact that the potential for contamination from the

  • Intro & background

  • Assessing the likelihood of contamination

  • Monitoring for contamination

  • Risk assessment

  • Risk communication


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Seafood & Fisheries Issues during Oil Spills: their first season during the Bering Sea crab season in 2005, and the fact that the potential for contamination from the References on the CD

  • Managing Seafood Safety after an Oil Spill (Yender et al., 2002)

  • Guidance on Sensory Testing and Monitoring of Seafood … Following an Oil Spill (Reilly and York, 2001)

  • Closing and reopening fisheries following oil spills (Mauseth et al. 1997)

  • Trends in rescinding seafood harvest closures following oil spills (Mauseth and Challenger, 2001)

  • The M/V Selendang Ayu Commercial Fisheries Workgroup Process (DeCola et al. 2006)

  • Oil Spills and Fisheries Markets: Potential Effects and Mitigation Strategies (Knapp 2005)

  • Experimental tainting of marine fish…with comparison to the Braer oil spill (Davis et al., 2002)

  • …and a few other miscellaneous odds and ends that you will be glad to have the next time there’s a spill with a threatened fishery…


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Seafood & Fisheries Issues during Oil Spills: their first season during the Bering Sea crab season in 2005, and the fact that the potential for contamination from the What We Done Talked About

  • Introduction & background

  • What’s at risk

  • Fisheries impacts in international spills

  • A little science related to tainting

  • Sensory assessment

  • A couple of U.S. spill examples

  • Reference materials

  • Overview of regional experiences


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