Sea power and maritime affairs
Download
1 / 52

Sea Power and Maritime Affairs - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 535 Views
  • Updated On :

Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 22: Global Responsibilities After the Cold War, 1991-2001 Learning Objectives Comprehend the national strategic implications of the Post Cold War and its effects on policy and the Navy.

Related searches for Sea Power and Maritime Affairs

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Sea Power and Maritime Affairs' - emily


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Sea power and maritime affairs l.jpg

Sea Power and Maritime Affairs

Lesson 22: Global Responsibilities After the Cold War, 1991-2001


Learning objectives l.jpg
Learning Objectives

  • Comprehend the national strategic implications of the Post Cold War and its effects on policy and the Navy.

  • Comprehend the role of the Navy in regional conflicts, including Post-Gulf War Iraq, Yugoslavia, Somalia, and Afghanistan.

  • Comprehend the changes in Naval policy and technology, as well as historical 1990s milestones.


Strategic implications post cold war l.jpg
Strategic Implications Post-Cold War

  • July 31, 1991, START I.

  • September 27,1991, President Bush announced Soviets no longer pose creditable threat to the U.S.

    • SAC bombers off 24-hour alert.

    • Removed all tactical nukes from Navy surface, sub and aircraft.


Soviet collapse december 8 1991 l.jpg
Soviet CollapseDecember 8, 1991

  • Boris Yelstin elected President after Soviet collapse. He was re-elected in 1996 and resigned in December of 1999, due to health.

  • Successor of states: Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and Belarus. Ukraine and Kazakhstan became the third and fourth largest nuclear states.

    • Russia joined U.S. in NPT

    • U.S. and Russia found themselves “comrades in arms” to prevent uncontrolled nuclear weapons in former Soviet Union, North Korea, Pakistan, and India.


Slide5 l.jpg

Boris Yeltsin, President of the Russian Republic, George and Barbara Bush, and the Bush dogs on the White House lawn.  Bush supported Yeltsin's efforts to transform Russia into a post-communist regime


Slide6 l.jpg

William Clinton defeats President Bush, Sr. in 1992 Election Barbara Bush, and the Bush dogs on the White House lawn.  Bush supported Yeltsin's efforts to transform Russia into a post-communist regime


North korea l.jpg
North Korea Barbara Bush, and the Bush dogs on the White House lawn.  Bush supported Yeltsin's efforts to transform Russia into a post-communist regime

  • Early 1993, N. Korea violated signed treaty and prevented inspections of Atomic Energy Agency inspections of nuclear waste sites.

  • President Kim Il-Sung accused U.S. and S. Korea of “spying” for the purpose of a planned, organized, joint nuclear strike on the North.

  • President Sung’s son, Kim Jong-Il, succeeds father to presidency eighteen months later and agrees with President William Clinton to allow inspections for light-water reactors that do not produce plutonium.

  • 31 August 1998, N. Korea launched a ballistic missile over Japan. N. Korea demanded lift of economic sanctions.


India pakistan l.jpg
India/Pakistan Barbara Bush, and the Bush dogs on the White House lawn.  Bush supported Yeltsin's efforts to transform Russia into a post-communist regime

  • May 1998, India announced detonation of five nuclear weapons in Thar Desert near Pakistan border.

    • 1968, India refused to sign NPT

    • 1974, became “nuclear power”

  • U.S. and U.N. plead to Pakistan to not respond to test. Pakistan conducts 6 tests within a month.

  • On 6 June 1998, both countries sign Nonproliferation Treaty of 1968 and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).


Slide9 l.jpg

"[Not achieving a nuclear test ban] would have to be classed as the greatest disappointment of any administration, of any decade, of any time and of any party." President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961.


Missile defense systems l.jpg
Missile Defense Systems as the greatest disappointment of any administration, of any decade, of any time and of any party." President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961.

  • Decades of arms control negotiations, dissolution of the Soviet Union, and in the afterglow of the Cold War, nuclear war seems less plausible to Americans.

  • Threat of massive retaliation simply would not deter terrorists, so missile defense becomes topic of the end of the 1990s.

  • December 1999, President Yeltsin resigns.

  • January 2001, President George Bush, Jr., took Oath of Office.

  • President Bush decoupled American and Russian strategic interests for the first time since Nixon.


Post gulf war iraq l.jpg
Post-Gulf War IRAQ as the greatest disappointment of any administration, of any decade, of any time and of any party." President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961.

1990s includes a series of Operations where the Navy, especially the carrier battle group (CVBG) is a primary instrument.


Slide12 l.jpg
1992 as the greatest disappointment of any administration, of any decade, of any time and of any party." President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961.

  • UNSCR 687 stipulated Iraq must provide full disclosure of all aspects of its nuclear, chemical, biological, and long-range missile weapons programs

  • August 26- “No Fly Zone” (NFZ) OPERATION SOUTHERN WATCH

  • December 27- F-16D destroys MiG-25 intruding NFZ.


Slide13 l.jpg
1993 as the greatest disappointment of any administration, of any decade, of any time and of any party." President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961.

  • January 13. Thirty-five aircraft from the Kitty Hawk lead strike against 32 Iraqi SAM sites that have continues to target planes patrolling the NFZ.

  • January 17. Three destroyers launch a total of 45 Tomahawk cruise missiles into Zaafaraniyah Nuclear Fabrication Facility; 41 hit their targets.

  • Aegis cruiser launches 23 missiles at Iraqi Intelligence Service Headquarters in Baghdad.


Slide14 l.jpg
1995 as the greatest disappointment of any administration, of any decade, of any time and of any party." President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961.

  • August 17. OPERATION VIGILANT SENTINEL. U.S. sends two CVBGs in response to Iraqi threat on Kuwait and Jordan’s boarders.

  • September. Iraq finally declared the existence of two projects to disseminate biological agents from Mirage F-1 and MiG-21 aircraft, yet there is no evidence that the prototype weapons and aircraft were ever destroyed.


Slide15 l.jpg
1996 as the greatest disappointment of any administration, of any decade, of any time and of any party." President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961.

  • September 3. OPERATION DESERT STRIKE. Iraqi troops threaten Kurds under protection of Operation Provide Comfort.

  • September 4. Clinton extends NFZ to the 33rd parallel.


Slide17 l.jpg
1997 as the greatest disappointment of any administration, of any decade, of any time and of any party." President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961.

  • OPERATION NORTHERN WATCH. Enforcement of NFZ over Northern Iraq.


Slide18 l.jpg
1998 as the greatest disappointment of any administration, of any decade, of any time and of any party." President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961.

  • July. Iraq seized from the hands of UNSCOM inspectors an Iraqi Air Force document indicating that Iraq misrepresented the expenditure of over 6,000 bombs that may have contained over 700 tons of a chemical agent.

  • November 14. Saddam suspends all contact with U.N. inspection teams.

  • December. Saddam stopped all cooperation with the U.N., refusing to let any weapons inspectors into the country.

  • December 16. OPERATION DESERT FOX.


Slide19 l.jpg
1999 as the greatest disappointment of any administration, of any decade, of any time and of any party." President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961.

  • Nine years after the Gulf War, sanctions remained in place because of Iraq’s behavior.

  • No Iraqi biological weapon production records have been given to the UN, besides one referring to a single year.


Slide20 l.jpg
2001 as the greatest disappointment of any administration, of any decade, of any time and of any party." President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961.

  • February 16. Air strike on Iraq.

  • August 10. More than 25 strikes this year in response to anti-aircraft fire and missile launches.


Slide21 l.jpg
2002 as the greatest disappointment of any administration, of any decade, of any time and of any party." President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961.

  • January 21 and February 28. U.S. and British planes strike anti-air sites in response to fire.

  • January 29. President Bush announces, “Iran, Iraq, and North Korea” constitute an “axis of evil.”

  • As of January 2002, multiple combat Air Patrols are still present over Iraq with occasional strikes in response to NFZ violations.


Slide22 l.jpg

BOSNIA as the greatest disappointment of any administration, of any decade, of any time and of any party." President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961.


Slide23 l.jpg
1991 as the greatest disappointment of any administration, of any decade, of any time and of any party." President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961.

  • June 27. Fighting starts in Slovenia, spreading to Croatia.

  • November 8. Europe places economic blockade on Yugoslavia.

1992

  • January. U.N. protection force sent.

  • May 22. U.N. recognizes Croatia, Slovenia, and

    Bosnia as independent states.


1992 cont l.jpg
1992, Cont…. as the greatest disappointment of any administration, of any decade, of any time and of any party." President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961.

  • March 30. U.N. called for humanitarian aid, economic embargos, and ban on air traffic.

  • July 1. Washington called for relief flights that would be multinational and be supported until OPERATION DENY FLIGHT in April 1993.

  • September 22. Yugoslavia expelled from U.N. in response to Milosevic’s atrocities.


Slide25 l.jpg
1993 as the greatest disappointment of any administration, of any decade, of any time and of any party." President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961.

  • April 12. OPERATION DENY FLIGHT. NFZ over Bosnia.

  • June 15. OPERATION SHARP GUARD. Adriatic blockade.

1995

  • August 30- September 21. OPERATION

    DELIBERATE FORCE. NATO bombing offensive.

  • December 14. Dayton Accords. Ended war in

    Bosnia.


Slide26 l.jpg
1998 as the greatest disappointment of any administration, of any decade, of any time and of any party." President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961.

  • June 14. OPERATION DETERMINED FALCON.

1999

  • March 24- June 10. NATO war with Yugoslavia. OPERATION DENY FORCE.


Slide28 l.jpg
1992 as the greatest disappointment of any administration, of any decade, of any time and of any party." President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961.

  • August 18- December 9. OPERATION PROVIDE RELIEF.

  • December 9. OPERATION RESTORE HOPE.

1993

  • June 5. Mogadishu, 24 members of a detachment of Pakistani peacekeepers are killed.

  • October 3. 400 U.S. Army troops ambushed. 18 Americans killed; 77 wounded.

  • October 7. Clinton orders troops to Somalia.


Slide30 l.jpg
1992 as the greatest disappointment of any administration, of any decade, of any time and of any party." President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961.

  • March 24. U.S. withdraws.

1995

  • March 3. OPERATION UNITED SHIELD. U.N. evacuates Somalia, covered by multinational force, including U.S. ships and Marines.


Slide31 l.jpg

All commitments in the Joint world are not alone to one service. Although the Navy had a smaller part in Somalia, it still affects commitments to Yugoslavia and Iraq at this time.


America s war on terrorism l.jpg
America’s service. Although the Navy had a smaller part in Somalia, it still affects commitments to Yugoslavia and Iraq at this time.“War on Terrorism”

  • September 11, 2001. World Trade Center attacked. President Bush declares “War on Terrorism” the very next day.

    • Ultimatum to Taliban in Afghanistan to close al-Quaeda training camps and surrender Bin Laden.

    • The state of the Navy: 12 CVBG, 12 ARG, 108 Surface Combatants, 55 SSBN, 3 Marine divisions, 3 Marine Air Wings. 2 carriers present in Persian Gulf.


U s strike assets used l.jpg
U.S. Strike Assets Used service. Although the Navy had a smaller part in Somalia, it still affects commitments to Yugoslavia and Iraq at this time.

  • 15 U.S. long-range bombers, B-1, B-52

  • 25 Carrier Attack A/C, F-14s, F/A-18s

  • Tomahawks, Aegis cruisers, Aegis destroyers, and Los Angeles - class submarines.

  • Intent of campaign is for the Northern Alliance to be able to take offensive- 15,000 troops.

    Taliban

  • Ground: 40,000 fighters

  • No Taliban fighter aircraft successfully launched



Slide36 l.jpg

Crew men of the USS Enterprise (CVN 65) line up to receive an Advanced Chemical Protective Garments issued for protection against chemical, biological, or radiological attack on Oct. 7, 2001, during Operation Enduring Freedom.


The continued campaign l.jpg
The Continued Campaign… an Advanced Chemical Protective Garments issued for protection against chemical, biological, or radiological attack on Oct. 7, 2001, during Operation Enduring Freedom.

  • By November 13, the Northern Alliance has taken the offensive

  • Northern Alliances’ multiple tribes announce intention to form inclusive government.

  • November 25. Marines/Special Forces ashore.

  • December 4-16. Tora Bora. Victory in 11 days.

  • December 6. New Afghan Government.

  • By December 17, two million lbs of bombs expended in multiple air strikes against Taliban.


Continued campaign l.jpg
Continued Campaign an Advanced Chemical Protective Garments issued for protection against chemical, biological, or radiological attack on Oct. 7, 2001, during Operation Enduring Freedom.

  • December 22. Hamid Karzai interim Prime Minster of Afghanistan.

  • As of January 2002, Afghanistan has an interim government and multi-national ground force, naval forces, and combat air patrols all on station.

  • February 2002, LT Russell Fusco, star of film “Pearl Harbor,” attends CAS symposium in Kuwait to discuss course of war.


Other 1990s naval events l.jpg
“Other” 1990s Naval Events an Advanced Chemical Protective Garments issued for protection against chemical, biological, or radiological attack on Oct. 7, 2001, during Operation Enduring Freedom.

  • September 1991. Tailhook

  • April 1993. SECDEF announces that women will fly combat aircraft missions and serve on combat vessels.

  • July 1993. “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” – Clinton policy for homosexuals in the military.

  • February 1994. LT Shannon Workman becomes first female carrier qualified fighter pilot.

  • February 1998. A Marine Corps EA-6B, based in Aviano, Italy, flies below low level training route altitude and severs gondola cables killing civilians.

  • October 1994. LT Kara Hultgreen, first woman carrier qualified in the F-14 Tomcat, is killed during landing operations.


Slide40 l.jpg

Gondola wreckage from EA-6B an Advanced Chemical Protective Garments issued for protection against chemical, biological, or radiological attack on Oct. 7, 2001, during Operation Enduring Freedom.

Lt. Kara Spears 'Revlon' Hultgreen (1965-1994)


Slide41 l.jpg

7. an Advanced Chemical Protective Garments issued for protection against chemical, biological, or radiological attack on Oct. 7, 2001, during Operation Enduring Freedom. March 1995. LCDR Wendy Lawrence, daughter of Admiral Lawrence (Vietnam POW), becomes first female naval aviator in space on board STS 60, The Endeavor.

8. May 1996. Death of Admiral Michael Boorda. Chief of Naval Operations shoots himself in response to journalistic investigations of his entitlement to wear combat “V” for service in waters off Vietnam.

9. October 2000. Attack on the USS Cole.

10. February 2001. Greenville incident.

11. April 2001. EP-3 incident.


Slide42 l.jpg

CDR Wendy Lawrence, U.S. Navy an Advanced Chemical Protective Garments issued for protection against chemical, biological, or radiological attack on Oct. 7, 2001, during Operation Enduring Freedom.

Admiral Jeremy M. Boorda, U.S. Navy

USS Cole damage


Slide43 l.jpg

EP-3 crewmembers stand at ease during the April 12 ceremony welcoming them to Hawaii following their release from China


Policy new technology l.jpg
Policy welcoming them to Hawaii following their release from ChinaNew Technology

  • September 1992. “…From the Sea.” The Navy adopts new mission as consequence to the end of the Cold War.

  • September 1993. “Bottom Up Review” 346-ship navy with 11 carrier battle groups. Goal: Ability to fight 2 major regional conflicts and one low intensity conflict at the same time.

  • May 1997. As result of first “Quadrennial Defense Reviews,” force levels to be able to deal with two simultaneous regional conflicts call for 12 carriers groups and 12 amphibious ready groups.


Slide45 l.jpg

  • June 1997 welcoming them to Hawaii following their release from China. Navy signs preliminary agreement for construction of the DD-21 Zumwalt class.

  • May 1999. Osprey, MV-22, first of four production models approved.

  • September 1999. New attack sub (NSSN) “Virginia” class to be built.

  • April 2000. MV-22 crashes in Arizona; 19 lost.

  • December 2000. MV-22 crashes in Jacksonville, killing all four crewmen.

  • December 2000. JSF X-35C, carrier version, makes first flight.

  • March 2000. Mrs. Reagan christens USS Ronald Reagan, CVN 76.


Slide47 l.jpg

MV-22 OSPREY welcoming them to Hawaii following their release from China

X-35 JSF


Significance of the 1990s for the navy of the future l.jpg
Significance of the 1990s for the Navy of the Future welcoming them to Hawaii following their release from China

  • Comprehend the transitional nature of the naval strategy and policy in the 1990s when judges against the post “9-11” events and the War on Terrorism.

  • Understand that many of the guiding assumptions of the 1990s were made obsolete by 9-11 and the War on Terrorism.

  • Assess what aspects of the naval policy and strategy of the 1990s remain valid for the early 2000s.


Learning objectives51 l.jpg
Learning Objectives welcoming them to Hawaii following their release from China

  • Comprehend the national strategic implications of the Post Cold War and its effects on policy and the Navy.

  • Comprehend the role of the Navy in regional conflicts, including Post-Gulf War Iraq, Yugoslavia, Somalia, and Afghanistan.

  • Comprehend the changes in Naval policy and technology, as well as historical 1990s milestones.


Slide52 l.jpg

Next time: Terrorism welcoming them to Hawaii following their release from China


ad