Strategy o' the Week: parallelism/chiasmus. To communicate is to speak, to pause, and to listen. Tolisten, to pause, and then to speak is to communicate well.Parallelism: organizational device that consists of the same general structure for multiple parts of the sentence or multiple sentencesEx.
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1. RSM Strategies
2. Strategy o’ the Week: parallelism/chiasmus To communicate is to speak, to pause, and to listen. To
listen, to pause, and then to speak is to communicate well.
Parallelism: organizational device that consists of the same general structure for multiple parts of the sentence or multiple sentences
Ex. The manor, designed for beauty and grace, built for durability and strength, and located for privacy and safety, was the ideal home for the children.
Chiasmus: special form of parallelism that flips the original form around
Ex. I have journeyed in the lands of the spirit, drunk from the fountains of wisdom, rested beneath the trees of eternity, and to the land of my birth, I have returned.
3. Parallel structure improves rhetoric. “To err is human, to forgive divine.”
The author could have said:
“It is completely human to err, but to forgive is divine.”
Why is parallelism stronger?
4. Now you try it! Complete the chiasmus. Example: "You forget what you want to remember, and you remember what you want to forget.“ (Cormac McCarthy, The Road, Knopf, 2006)
"I flee who chases me, and _________________.“ (Ovid)
"I flee who chases me, and chase who flees me."
"Fair is foul, and ________________." (William Shakespeare, Macbeth I.i)
"Fair is foul, and foul is fair."
"Your manuscript is both good and original; but the part that is good is not original, and the part that is original ______________." (Samuel Johnson)
"Your manuscript is both good and original; but the part that is good is not original, and the part that is original is not good."
5. Strategy o’ the Week: anaphora, epistrophe, symploce Repeat the phrase for style. Repeat the phrase for emphasis. Repeat the phrase for clarity. But repeat the phrase.
Anaphora: writer repeats a word or phrase at the beginning of multiple clauses or sentences.
Example: “To every thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven: A time to be born, and a time to die; a time to plant, and a time to pluck up that which is planted; a time to kill, and a time to heal; a time to break down, and a time to build up…” ~Ecclesiastes
6. Epistrophe: the same word or phrase is repeated at the end of multiple clauses or sentences.
Ex. “When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child, but when I became a man, I put away childish things.” ~Corinthians
Symploce = anaphora + epistrophe
Ex. “We enjoy life when we know ourselves to be free of temptation and sin, but we enjoy life also when we give oursleves completely to temptation and sin.”
Note: all 3 (anaphora, epistrophe, and symploce, are forms of parallelism)
7. Strategy o’ the Week: synecdoche metonymy Definition Synecdoche: uses a part to describe the whole Ex. The captain shouted, “All hands on deck.” Hands are a PART of the person at whom the captian is shouting. Greater stylistic impact than Everybody get over here! Definition Metonymy: uses something related (like an object) to describe something greater Ex. The pen is mightier than the sword. A pen is RELATED to writing, and a sword is RELATED to fighting. Greater stylistic impact than Writing is mightier than fighting.