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PSY 321 Attitudes & Behavior Dr. Sanchez. What is an attitude?. What is an Attitude?. A positive, negative, or mixed reaction to a person, object, or idea, expressed at some level of intensity (e.g., love, like, dislike, detest). Four Possible Reactions to Attitude Objects.

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what is an attitude3

What is an Attitude?

A positive, negative,

or mixed reaction to a person, object, or idea, expressed at some level of intensity (e.g., love, like, dislike, detest)

attitudes are pervasive
Attitudes are Pervasive
  • There are few things in which we truly feel neutral
  • When switch on a game (e.g. tennis match) you quickly pick sides, even if you don’t know the players.
slide6

Components of Attitudes:

Tripartite View

Cognitive

Attitude

Affective

Behavioral

components of attitudes
Components of Attitudes
  • COGNITIVE
    • beliefs about attitude object (pos & neg)
  • AFFECTIVE
    • emotions and feelings the object triggers (pos & neg)
  • BEHAVIORAL
    • reaction toward the object (pos & neg actions)
attitude object dentist
Attitude Object: DENTIST
  • COGNITIONS
    • Dentists are friendly.
    • Dentists are expensive.
  • AFFECTS
    • Dentists make me feel anxious.
    • I like dentists.
  • BEHAVIORS
    • I visit the dentist twice a year.
    • I am a very cooperative patient.
why people have attitudes
Why People Have Attitudes
  • Value-Expressive function: Express who we are
  • Ego-defensive function: Protect Self-Esteem
  • Instrumental function: Obtain awards, avoid punishments
  • Knowledge function: understand people and events
how attitudes are measured self report measures
How Attitudes Are Measured: Self-Report Measures
  • Attitude Scale: A multiple-item questionnaire designed to measure a person’s attitude toward some object.
    • e.g., Likert Scale
    • 1 = not at all; 3 = somewhat; 5 = very much
how would you respond to these questions
How would you respond to these questions?
  • Old Fashioned Racism
    • “I would mind if a Black family moved next door”
    • “Whites are more intelligent than Blacks”
  • Old Fashioned Sexism
    • “Women should stay home and not worry about having a career”
    • “Men should be in charge of all major decisions”
how attitudes are measured self report measures12
How Attitudes Are Measured: Self-Report Measures
  • Bogus Pipeline: A phony lie-detector device that is sometimes used to get respondents to give truthful answers to sensitive questions.
how attitudes are measured covert measures
How Attitudes Are Measured: Covert Measures
  • Observable behavior
  • Measures of arousal
  • Facial Electromyograph (EMG): An electronic instrument that records facial muscle activity associated with emotions and attitudes.
the facial emg
The Facial EMG

When people hear a message they agree with, there is increase in depressor and zygomatic muscles and decrease in corrugator and frontalis muscles.

how attitudes are measured the implicit association test iat
How Attitudes Are Measured: The Implicit Association Test (IAT)
  • Based on notion that we have implicit attitudes.
  • Implicit Association Test (IAT): Measures the speed with which one responds to pairings of concepts.
toxic

pleasant

unpleasant

toxic

happy

Rutgers

or

pleasant

Princeton

or

unpleasant

happy

slide19

Rutgers

or

pleasant

Princeton

or

unpleasant

interpreting reaction times
Interpreting Reaction Times
  • Faster responding to positive words when Rutgers is paired with pleasant = positive implicit attitude toward Rutgers
  • Faster responding to positive words when Princeton is paired with pleasant = positive implicit attitude toward Princeton
findings iat
Findings IAT
  • Self over Other
  • White over Black
  • Young over Old
  • Males with Careers over Women with Careers
  • Women with Family over Men with Family
  • Limitations of IAT?
explicit implicit correspondence
Explicit & Implicit Correspondence
  • Average correspondence is .24
slide24
GENES: Twin studies
  • high correlations on attitude strength and content for identicals raised together OR apart!
  • significantly lower for fraternals
origins of attitudes social experiences
Origins of Attitudes: Social Experiences
  • Affectively Based Attitudes
    • based on people’s feelings of an attitude object (not on beliefs)
  • Sources of Affectively Based Attitudes
    • values
    • mere exposure
    • classical conditioning
origins of attitudes social experiences27
Origins of Attitudes: Social Experiences
  • Affectively Based Attitudes
    • based on people’s feelings of an attitude object (not on beliefs)
  • Sources of Affectively Based Attitudes
    • values
    • mere exposure
    • classical conditioning
origins of attitudes social experiences28
Origins of Attitudes: Social Experiences
  • Affectively Based Attitudes
    • based on people’s feelings & values of an attitude object
  • Sources of Affectively Based Attitudes
    • values
    • mere exposure
    • classical conditioning
mere exposure

Mere Exposure

The tendency to develop more positive feelings toward objects & individuals the more we are exposed to them.

mere exposure mita and colleagues 1977
Mere Exposure:Mita and colleagues (1977)
  • Photographed women students on campus
  • Showed Ps picture & mirror image of print
  • Which do you like better - “regular” or mirror image print?
mere exposure mita and colleagues 197731
Mere Exposure:Mita and colleagues (1977)
  • 2/3 of Ps preferred the mirror print
  • 61% of their close friends preferred the actual picture
  • Ps were more exposed to mirrored image so like them more
origins of attitudes social experiences32
Origins of Attitudes: Social Experiences
  • Affectively Based Attitudes
    • based on people’s feelings & values of an attitude object (not on beliefs)
  • Sources of Affectively Based Attitudes
    • values
    • mere exposure
    • classical conditioning
classical conditioning
Classical Conditioning

The case whereby a stimulus that elicits an emotional response is repeatedly experienced along with a neutral stimulus that does not, until the neutral stimulus takes on the emotional properties of the first stimulus

slide34

Affectively Based Attitudes:

Classical Conditioning

Stimulus 1

(mothballs)

Stimulus 2

visits to granny

Pleasurable

Feelings

Stimulus 1

(mothballs)

Pleasurable

Feelings

slide36

Affectively Based Attitudes:

Classical Conditioning

Stimulus 1

Milk

Stimulus 2

Supermodel

Pleasurable

Feelings

Stimulus 1

Milk

Pleasurable

Feelings

where do attitudes come from37
Where Do Attitudes Come From?
  • GENES
    • Twin study
  • SOCIAL EXPERIENCES
    • affectively based
    • behaviorally based
origins of attitudes social experiences38
Origins of Attitudes:Social Experiences
  • Behaviorally Based Attitudes
    • based on people’s observations of how one behaves toward an attitude object
  • Sources of Beh. Based Attit.
    • Bem’s Self-Perception Theory
    • Operant Conditioning
what are your attitudes about liberal politicians
What are your attitudes about liberal politicians?

Self-Perception Theory

Behavior

“Now that I think

about it, I only vote

for conservatives.”

Attitude

“I guess I don’t

like liberal

politicians.”

origins of attitudes social experiences40
Origins of Attitudes:Social Experiences
  • Behaviorally Based Attitudes
    • based on people’s observations of how one behaves toward an attitude object
  • Sources of Beh. Based Attit.
    • Bem’s Self-Perception Theory
    • Operant Conditioning
operant conditioning

Operant Conditioning

The case whereby behaviors that people freely choose to perform increase or decrease in frequency, depending on whether they are followed by positive reinforcement or punishment

slide42

Behaviorally Based Attitudes

& Operant Conditioning

Behavior

Toward

An Object

+ Reinforce-

ment or

Punishment

.

Pos or Neg

Attitude

toward the

Object

e.g., playing

with a child of

another

race

+ reinforcement

- parents’ approval

Punishment - parents’

disapproval

the weak link between attitudes and behavior
The Weak Link Between Attitudes and Behavior
  • Why did early work find a weak attitude-behavior link?
general attitudes and specific behaviors
General Attitudes and Specific Behaviors
  • Must be correspondence between level of specificity of attitude and behavior.
  • For example, to predict recycling at work, do you ask:
    • How do you feel about recycling?
    • How do you feel about recycling office paper?
slide46

Correspondence of Specificity(Davidson & Jaccard, 1979)

  • Study of married women’s use of birth control
  • Ps asked a series of attitude questions - general to specific (e.g., will U use birth control in next 2 years)
  • Two years later asked Ps if they had used birth control since the interview
correspondence of specificity davidson jaccard 1979
Correspondence of Specificity(Davidson & Jaccard, 1979)
  • Attitude Attitude-Behavior
  • Measure Correlation
  • Att. toward birth control .08
  • Att. toward birth control pills .32
  • Att. toward using birthing control pills .53
  • Att. toward using birth control pills

during the next two years .57

predicting planned behaviors
Predicting Planned Behaviors

Theory of Planned Behavior

(Ajzen & Fishbein)

Behavioral

Intention

Behavior

predicting planned behaviors49
Predicting Planned Behaviors

Theory of Planned Behavior

Specific

Attitude

Behavioral

Intention

Behavior

Subjective

Norms

Perceived

Behavioral

Control

predicting planned behaviors50
Predicting Planned Behaviors

Theory of Planned Behavior

Specific

Attitude

Behavioral

Intention

Behavior

Subjective

Norms

Perceived

Behavioral

Control

predicting planned behaviors51
Predicting Planned Behaviors

Theory of Planned Behavior

Specific

Attitude

Behavioral

Intention

Behavior

Subjective

Norms

Perceived

Behavioral

Control

slide52

Will Rachel attend the COLDPLAY Concert?

Specific

Attitude

Subjective

Norms

Perceived

Behavioral

Control

theory of planned behavior subjective norms
Theory of Planned Behavior:Subjective Norms
  • Fishbein
    • measured Ps’ attitudes and subjective norms (what do your friends think) about engaging in premarital sex
    • attitudes and subjective norms predicted sexual behavior
    • men more influenced by subjective norms
    • women more influenced by own attitudes
predicting planned behaviors54
Predicting Planned Behaviors

Theory of Planned Behavior

Specific

Attitude

Behavioral

Intention

Behavior

Subjective

Norms

Perceived

Behavioral

Control

theory of planned behavior perceived behavioral control
Theory of Planned Behavior:Perceived Behavioral Control
  • Azjen & Madden (1986)
    • do attitudes & subjective norms alone predict grades?
    • Combination of attitudes & subjective norms only moderately related to actual grades
    • must take into consideration behavioral control!!
strength of the attitude
Strength of the Attitude
  • Why do some attitudes have more influence on behavior?
  • Why are some attitudes stronger than others?
determining the strength of an attitude
Determining the Strength of an Attitude
  • Does the issue directly affect one’s own outcomes and self-interests?
  • Is the issue related to deeply held philosophical, political, and religious values?
  • Is the issue of concern to one’s close friends, family, and social in-groups?
factors that indicate the strength of an attitude
Factors That Indicate the Strength of an Attitude
  • How consistent is the person’s behavior with attitude?
    • Walking the talk
  • How was the information on which the attitude is based acquired?
    • Personal experience vs. second-hand
  • Has the attitude been attacked?
    • Stronger if attacked
  • How accessible is the attitude to awareness?
strength accessibility fazio
Strength & Accessibility (Fazio)***
  • we can measure the strength of a person’s attitude by seeing how accessible it is in memory
  • if an attitude is highly accessible, then it comes to mind quickly
  • if an attitude is highly inaccessible, then it comes to mind much slower
do attitudes predict behavior60
Do Attitudes Predict Behavior?
  • IT DEPENDS!
  • One Key Factor
    • Spontaneous Behaviors
    • Planned/Deliberative Behaviors
attitudes spontaneous behaviors fazio powell williams 1989
Attitudes & Spontaneous Behaviors(Fazio, Powell, & Williams, 1989)
  • Role of accessibility in Ps’ attitudes & behaviors toward consumer items
  • Ps rated their attitude toward several products
attitudes spontaneous behaviors fazio powell williams 198962
Attitudes & Spontaneous Behaviors(Fazio, Powell, & Williams, 1989)
  • Accessibility
    • assessed by how long it took Ps to respond to questions about the products
  • Behavior
    • placed ten of the products in two rows of five
    • Ps could take one product home
  • Results??
attitudes spontaneous behaviors fazio powell williams 198963
Attitudes & Spontaneous Behaviors(Fazio, Powell, & Williams, 1989)
  • To what extent did Ps’ attitudes toward the products predict their behavior?
  • Depends on accessibility
    • attitude-behavior consistency was high among Ps with accessible attitudes
    • attitude-behavior consistency was low among Ps with inaccessible attitudes
be prepared to
Be Prepared To:
  • Which route of persuasion advertisement is using?
  • What persuasion cues are present in the ad?
ad