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Policing Football Fans in Europe Case studies of the Euro 2000 and Euro 2004 football championships Prof. Dr. Otto M.J. Adang http://policestudies.homestead.com Adang (1990): Study into initiation and escalation of riots In the Netherlands and during Euro ‘88 (Germany)

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Policing Football Fans in Europe Case studies of the Euro 2000 and Euro 2004 football championships

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Policing football fans in europe case studies of the euro 2000 and euro 2004 football championships l.jpg

Policing Football Fans in EuropeCase studies of the Euro 2000 and Euro 2004 football championships

Prof. Dr. Otto M.J. Adang

http://policestudies.homestead.com


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Adang (1990): Study into initiation and escalation of riots

  • In the Netherlands and during Euro ‘88 (Germany)

  • Systematic and structured observations

  • Over 700 observation hours (around 71 football matches and 139 protest events)

  • Quantitative analysis


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Ethological observations

  • Direct recording of observations

  • Limited number of well-defined behavioural categories

  • Focus on interaction

  • Focal group

  • Comparative approach


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Research questions

  • What happens: who uses violence, how many, what type of violence, against whom, under what circumstances, what response?

  • What factors influence the initiation and escalation of violence?


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Main conclusions

  • initiation of violence:

    • “frictions”

    • “young male syndrome”

  • escalation of violence:

    • ingroup/ outgroup mechanisms

    • opportunity/ perception of risk

  • normal social mechanisms are operating, but influence of alcohol and drugs


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Police can do a lot to prevent violence, but little to stop it

  • need to differentiate

  • need to communicate

  • need to observe

  • need for focused, timely interventions


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A “test”:

Adang & Cuvelier, 2001


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Amsterdam

Arnhem

Rotterdam

Eindhoven

Brugge

Brussel

Luik

Charleroi


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Stated policy: police tactics

  • non-confrontational: preventive rather than repressive

  • small units, easily approachable, actively contacting fans

  • early and focused interventions

  • riot squads out of sight


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Stated policy: police behavioural profile

  • Police officers:

    • are service oriented, respectful of other cultures/ nationalities and unbiased

    • are aware of the importance of information

    • act within policy, without prejudice

    • act justly and strictly in a friendly and firm way


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Data collection

  • International monitoring team (all host cities)

    • questionnaire (individually)

    • summary of team observations

  • Foreign spotters’ teams

    • questionnaire (individually)

    • exit interview with teams

  • Observation team in each host city

    • systematic observations

    • qualitative diaries


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Results: two clusters,differing especially in:

  • primarily fullfilled preventive role

  • treated visitors as guests

  • were easily approachable by fans

  • switched flexibly

  • clearly stated limits of tolerance


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Public order management during Euro 2004: explicit choice for low profile approach

Adang & Stott


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Data collection Euro 2004

  • Matches of England, Germany, Netherlands, Portugal [and Albufeira]

  • Interviews with police and fans

  • International monitoring team

  • Observation teams (4 * 4)

    • in host cities: match days and preceding night

    • samples every 15 min, in between qualitative


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7 matches increased risk: 997 samples (England, Germany)

7 matches normal risk: 899 samples (Netherlands, Portugal)

Albufeira


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Note

  • Extensive use of plainclothes officers

  • Intervention units out of sight but close

  • Observations of potential incidents

  • Presence of “hooligans”


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Conclusions

  • Police strategy and tactics (low profile approach) succesful and contributed to:

    • Development of common football/ “euro 2004” identity

    • Empowerment of non-violence (self-policing among fans)

  • Contribution of international police cooperation

    • banning orders

    • community policing approach to international cooperation


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CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE/ INVESTIGATION APPROACH

Focus on deterrence and punishment

Covert (no interaction with fans)

Indirectly influencing fan behaviour

Focus on individuals/ prominents

COMMUNITY POLICING APPROACH

Focus on public order management

Open (interaction with fans)

Directly influencing fan behaviour

Focus on behaviour

International police cooperation: differences in approaches


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Foreign police at work (Braga)


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Strategic principles

  • “balance” between risk and deployment

  • dynamic assessment of risk

  • proactive communication

  • facilitation within limits

  • differentiation


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Trends in public order policing

  • from riot control to public order management

  • increased international cooperation

  • more knowledge-based

    • more systematic evaluations

    • search for good practice (what works)

    • practice and training more informed by more practically useful research


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