Mapping worldwide environmental and health inequalities
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Mapping worldwide environmental and health inequalities. Anna Barford University of Sheffield. with Danny Dorling, Mark Newman, John Pritchard, Graham Allsopp and Ben Wheeler. Cholera deaths.

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Mapping worldwide environmental and health inequalities

Mapping worldwide environmental and health inequalities

Anna Barford

University of Sheffield

with Danny Dorling, Mark Newman, John Pritchard, Graham Allsopp and Ben Wheeler


Cholera deaths

Cholera deaths

Territory size shows the proportion of worldwide deaths from cholera that occurred there, in 2004 or most recent.


Maps of inequality

Maps of inequality

  • Inequality is “Social disparity; the fact of occupying a more or a less advantageous position.” (OED, 2006)

  • Quick comparison between places

  • Position = social and geographical


Mapping worldwide environmental and health inequalities

“… our own privileges are located on the same map as their suffering, and may – in many ways we might prefer not to imagine – be linked to their suffering, as the wealth of some may imply the destitution of others …”

Susan Sontag (2003, p.92)


Worldmapper project

Worldmapper project

  • 366 cartograms

  • Social, economic, and health data

  • Universities of Sheffield (U.K.) & Michigan (U.S.A.)

  • Free online: www.worldmapper.org


Map reading

Map reading

  • Colours for identification

  • Total land area is constant

  • Ocean area is constant

  • Read like a pie chart

  • Cannot map rates or negative values

  • Need data for every country (from UN)


Connections

Connections

  • Health and pollution are linked

    • together (water pollution)

    • to other inequalities (wealth)

  • Pollution maps show half the story

  • Inequalities have a geography

  • How are people connected?


Water pollution and health

Water pollution and health


Poor sanitation

Poor Sanitation

Territory size shows the proportion of all people without access to basic sanitation (toilets) that live there.


Poor water

Poor Water

Territory size shows the proportion of all people without reliable access to safe water that live there.


Barbara frost ceo of wateraid

“Ask most poor people in the developing world what they need to escape a life of poverty and disease and top of their list will be clean water. Combine this with somewhere safe to go to the toilet and awareness of good hygiene practices and you have the foundation of all other development.”

Barbara Frost, CEO of WaterAid


Childhood diarrhoea

Childhood Diarrhoea

Territory size shows the proportion of worldwide cases of diarrhoea found in children aged 0-4 living there.


Mapping worldwide environmental and health inequalities

“Cholera is spread by contaminated water and food. Sudden large outbreaks are usually caused by a contaminated water supply.”

World Health Organisation, 2000


Cholera cases

Cholera Cases

Territory size shows the proportion of all cholera cases that were found there, in 2004 or in the most recent year with data available.


World health organisation 2000

“When cholera occurs in an unprepared community, case-fatality rates may be as high as 50% … a well established diarrhoeal disease control programme can limit the case-fatality rate to less than 1%.”

World Health Organisation, 2000


Public health spending

Public Health Spending

Territory size shows the proportion of spending on public health services that is spent there. Measured in purchasing power parity.


Net medicine exports

Net Medicine Exports

Territory size shows the proportion of net exports of medicine (in US$) that come from there. Net exports are exports minus imports.


Other relevant maps

Health care workers

Hospital beds

Electricity supply

Roads

Under-nourishment

Other relevant maps …


Nitrous oxide emissions

Nitrous Oxide Emissions


More on nitrous oxides

More on nitrous oxides

  • Nitric Oxide from combustion e.g. vehicle fumes

  • Nitric Oxide oxidises to Nitrogen Dioxide

  • Nitrogen Dioxide irritates lungs, lowers resistance to respiratory infections

  • High exposure may increase acute respiratory illness in children

    (Source: UK Air Quality Archive, 2007)


Mapping worldwide environmental and health inequalities

Hazardous Waste(flammable, oxidising, infectious, radioactive, poisonous, ecotoxic (poisonous to plants/animals), or corrosive waste)


Movement of hazardous waste to abidjan

Movement of Hazardous Waste to Abidjan

Probo Koala sails under Panamanian flag.

Registered owner is Celtic Legend Shipping Inc. of Norway.

Manager & operator is Prime Marine Management of Greece. (Greenpeace)

3 dead; 3000 sought health care (intestinal and

respiratory problems, nose bleeds, nausea and vomiting).(Relief Web, 07.09.06)

Source: BBC News


Nuclear waste

Nuclear Waste


Our nuclear waste

Our Nuclear Waste

“we have a 50-year history in this country of not finding any long-term management option for very high-level, relatively dangerous radioactive waste.”

Gordon McKerron, Committee on Radioactive Waste Management

Source: BBC News, from NIREX


Greenhouse gases

Greenhouse Gases


Greenhouse gases1

Greenhouse Gases

  • Distribution of greenhouse gas emission is likely to differ from distribution of effects

  • Places emit different greenhouse gases:

    Methane Carbon Dioxide


Www worldmapper org

www.worldmapper.org


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