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Lecture 19 Life of the Late Paleozoic Era PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Lecture 19 Life of the Late Paleozoic Era. Historical Geology. Late Paleozoic Life. ILate Paleozoic Marine Communities IILate Paleozoic Land Communities A)Plants 1)Spore-bearing Plants 2)Gymnosperms B)Metazoans (Animals) 1)Reptiles 2)The Amniotic Egg

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Lecture 19 Life of the Late Paleozoic Era

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Lecture 19

Life of the Late Paleozoic Era


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Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Life

ILate Paleozoic Marine Communities

IILate Paleozoic Land Communities

A)Plants

1)Spore-bearing Plants

2)Gymnosperms

B)Metazoans (Animals)

1)Reptiles

2)The Amniotic Egg

IIIThe Permian Mass Extinction


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Late Paleozoic Life


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Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Marine Communities


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Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Marine Communities

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Crinoidea


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Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Marine Communities

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Blastoidea

Petremites


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Historical Geology

Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Marine Communities

Productid Brachiopods

  • index fossils for the Permian period

  • spines were attached at raised bumps found on fossil shells


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Late Paleozoic Marine Communities

Fusulinids

Historical Geology

Kingdom: Protista


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Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Life

Plants


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Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Land Flora


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Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Land Flora

Lycopsids

Lepidodendron stem

Lepidostrobus cone

Baragwanathia

Lycopodium


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Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Land Flora

Sphenopsids

  • Sphenopsids were segmented spore plants that also achieved giant sizes

    • Calamites, Annularia

    • Modern sphenopsids include “horsetails”


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Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Land Flora

The Advantage of Seeds


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Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Land Flora

Seed Ferns

Glossopteris


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Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Life

Insects

  • Insects had appeared in Devonian time

    • Wingless forms

  • Insects underwent evolutionary radiation in Carboniferous time

    • Primitive winged forms (dragon flies)

    • Forms with folding wings


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Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Life

The Amniotic Egg


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Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Life

Reptile Evolution


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Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Life

Reptile Evolution


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Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Life

Reptile Evolution - Pelycosaurs

  • evolved from the protorothyrids during the Pennsylvanian

  • the dominant reptile group by the Early Permian

  • evolved into a diverse assemblage

The herbivore Edaphosaurus

The carnivore Dimetrodon


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Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Life

Reptile Evolution - Therapsids

Moschops

Dicynodon

diverse, mammal-like reptiles

originated in the Permian but survived into the Triassic period


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Historical Geology

Late Paleozoic Life

Reptile Evolution - Therapsid Characteristics

  • small- to medium-sized animals

  • displaying many mammalian features

    • fewer bones in the skull due to fusion of many of the small skull bones

    • enlargement of the lower jawbone

    • differentiation of the teeth for various functions such as nipping, tearing, and chewing food

    • and a more vertical position of the legs for greater flexibility,

    • as opposed to the sideways sprawling legs in primitive reptiles


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Historical Geology

The Permian Mass Extinction

Losses

Species: 90-95%


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Historical Geology

The Permian Mass Extinction

fusulinids

bryozoans

tabulate

corals

rugose

corals

porifera

trilobites

brachiopods

crinoidea

blastoidea

gastropoda


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Historical Geology

The Permian Mass Extinction

  • Global Cooling (Glaciation

  • Marine anoxia began in Late Permian, extended through Early Triassic

  • Negative shift in d13C values at extinction level (continental and marine sections)

  • Age of massive Siberian flood basalts is same as extinction

  • Climatic warming and drying near extinction level

  • Rapid Sea Level Oscillations


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Historical Geology

The Permian Mass Extinction

Deep-sea anoxic interval (Japan)


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Historical Geology

The Permian Mass Extinction

d13C isotopic shift(Italian Alps)


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Historical Geology

The Permian Mass Extinction

Siberian Flood Basalts

Reichow et al.

Science 2002


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Historical Geology

The Permian Mass Extinction

Siberian Flood Basalts

  • 45 identified lava flows

  • 400m to 3,700m thick

  • Volume of 1.5 to 3 × 106 km3

  • Duration of eruptions was only ~600 ky


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Historical Geology

The Permian Mass Extinction

Climate Change

  • Change from meandering to braided river systems in South Africa and Urals

    • Reduction in bank-stabilizing vegetation

  • Widespread charcoal horizons, desert sedimentation, warm indicators in paleosols (China, Australia, Antarctica)

  • Abrupt change from Glossopteris- to Dicroidium-dominated floras (Australia)


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