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Islam Submission to God Map of World Religions The Mosque: A place of Worship The Mosque: A place of Worship The Mosque: A place of Worship The Mosque: A place of Worship The Qur’an (The Koran) Central Sacred Text of Islam Written in Arabic 114 Chapters, called Surahs

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Islam

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Islam

Submission to God


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Map of World Religions


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The Mosque: A place of Worship


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The Mosque: A place of Worship


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The Mosque: A place of Worship


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The Mosque: A place of Worship


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The Qur’an (The Koran)

  • Central Sacred Text of Islam

  • Written in Arabic

  • 114 Chapters, called Surahs

  • Read from Right to Left

  • Divine dictation: Cannot be translated


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Muhammad

  • Prophet of Islam

  • Born in Mecca

  • Revered by Muslims as symbol of piety

  • Insisted on worship of one God (monotheism)


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The Five Pillars of Islam


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The First Pillar: Shahada

  • There is one God

  • Muhammad is God’s messenger


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The Second Pillar

Salah


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Salah

  • Must pray in direction of Mecca

  • Muslims must pray five times a day

    • Dawn

    • Noon

    • In the afternoon

    • In the evening

    • At sunset


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The Third Pillar: Zakat

Must donate to charity


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The Fourth Pillar: Sawm

  • Fast during Holy Month of Ramadan

    • Ninth month of Islamic calendar

    • No food or drink from sunrise to sunset

    • No alcohol or tobacco all month

  • End of month celebration: Eid-al-fitr


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The Fifth Pillar: Hajj

  • Pilgrimage to Mecca

  • Must make at least once in lifetime


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Other Islamic Practices

  • No pork products

  • No alcoholic beverages

  • Males are circumcised

  • Polygamy is allowed by law, but not commonly practiced

  • Cannot lend money for interest


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Calligraphy

  • “Beautiful Writing”

  • Decorate public buildings

  • Honor the Quran


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Islamic Art

  • Very little use of people in art

  • Many animals and patterns

  • Prayer rugs important


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Prayer rug


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Decorative tile


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Islamic Architecture

  • Basic needs for a mosque: large covered space for praying

  • Towers with minarets

  • Muezzin calls followers to worship

  • Community gathering place


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Dome of the Rock (Jerusalem)

  • Completed 691

  • Octagon building with golden dome

  • Mosaics/later tiles inside

  • Centered around a rock

    • The place where Muhammad ascended to heaven

    • Where Abraham bound Isaac (Ishmael)

    • Adam died and buried


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Mecca

  • Destination of the hajj (pilgrimage)

  • Birthplace of Muhammad

  • Forced to flee the city

  • Fled to Medina

  • Returned to Mecca convinced people

  • Qa’aba/Kabba (cube) focal point

    • Footprints of Abraham

    • Tomb of Ishmael


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Hajj to Mecca


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Mosque of Damascus

  • Damascus, Syria

  • Roman temple  Byzantine church

  • Mosaics & marble

  • Flowing water


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Great Mosque of Damascus


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Mosque in Cordoba, Spain

  • Muslims arrived in Spain in 700’s

  • Mosque designed to rival Damascus

  • Many columns supporting arches

  • Mosaic workmanship

  • Christians drove from Spain 1492


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Mosque in Cordoba, Spain


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Taj Mahal, India

  • Emperor Shah Jahan’s wife dies

  • Mumtaz Mahal’s mausoleum

  • Completed 1647-1652

  • Polished white marble

  • Inspired by Koran’s paradise

  • Minarets, domed tomb, reflecting pools

  • Symbol of India


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Taj Mahal


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Islamic star patterns

  • Lack of humans depicted

  • Mathematical inspiration


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