KIN 325 PRINCIPLES OF PHYSICAL FITNESS INTRODUCTION 1. Health Risk Factors 2.Physical Fitness: What is it? 3.Components of Physical Fitness 4.General Principles of Physical Training 5.Planning an Exercise Program Introduction 1. Health Risk Factors
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PRINCIPLES OF PHYSICAL FITNESS
1.Health Risk Factors
2.Physical Fitness: What is it?
3.Components of Physical Fitness
4.General Principles of Physical Training
5.Planning an Exercise Program
1. Health Risk Factors
100 years ago, the average life expectancy was only mid to late forties.
Risk Factors of circa 1900: infectious diseases such as pneumonia, tuberculosis and smallpox
Today’s risk factors are mainly related to one’s lifestyle
- high fat diets
- smoking, alcohol, and drugs
- inadequate stress management
- environmental pollution
Lead to development of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer
Cause of Death % of total deaths
Chronic lung disease 5.2
Influenza & Pneumonia 2.7
Alzheimer’s Disease 2.6
Kidney Disease 1.7
(systemic blood infection)
National Center for Health Statistics, 2005
Most important lifestyle factor?
Direct correlation between fitness and mortality rates for all-cause deaths, cardiovascular disease deaths, and cancer deaths
Decrease in number of deaths from heart disease
Activity also improves the quality of life over the life span – increase in functional capacity
the ability of the body to adapt to the demands and stresses of physical effort.
The ability to perform moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity without undue fatigue (American College of Sports Medicine).
The ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue and with ample energy to enjoy leisure-time pursuits and to meet unforeseen emergencies (The President’s Council on Physical Fitness).
Achieved through activity
Lack of activity – Hypokinetic disease such as obesity and osteoporosis
*muscles atrophy and become weaker
*bones lose density
*joints stiffen and lose ROM
*cellular energy systems degenerate
Exercise: physical activity that is planned, structured, repetitive, and purposeful in the sense that improvement or maintenance of physical fitness is an objective.
Physical activity: any bodily movement produced by the skeletal muscles that results in an increase in energy expenditure.
b. muscular strength
c. muscular endurance
Agility- the ability to rapidly change the position of the entire body in space with speed and accuracy.
Balance- the maintenance of equilibrium while stationary or moving.
Coordination- ability to use the senses to perform motor tasks smoothly and accurately; that is, in a highly efficient manner.
Speed- ability to perform a movement in a short period of time.
Power- the ability to apply force quickly.
Reaction time- time elapsed between stimulation and the first measured movement response.
Cardiorespiratory endurance- the ability to continue in strenuous tasks involving large muscle groups for extended periods of time.
Depends on a variety of factors:
Ability of the lungs to deliver oxygen to the bloodstream
Heart’s capacity to pump the blood
Ability of the nervous system and the blood vessels to regulate blood flow
Capability of metabolic machinery to use oxygen and metabolize fuels for energy
Body composition- refers to the relative amounts of lean body tissue (muscle, bone, and water) and fat in body.
Overweight vs obese
Overweight Obese Ideal
Men > 20% > 25% < 15%
Women> 30%> 33% <23%
Musculoskeletal fitness- made up of three components: flexibility, muscular strength, and muscular endurance.
Flexibility- functional capacity of the joints to move through a full range of motion.
Muscular strength- the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximal effort.
Muscular endurance- the ability to sustain a given level of muscle tension.
4. General Principles of Physical Training
Overall objective: to cause biological adaptations that will improve the functional capacity of a particular body system.
1. Overload principle
A body system must be exercised at a level above which it normally operates in order for the system to function more effectively. This can be accomplished as follows:
Increasing the frequency of exercise
Increasing the duration of exercise
Increasing the intensity of exercise
To ensure continued improvement, the degree of overload should keep pace with the adaptive physiological and performance changes that occur as a result of training- progressive overload.
2. Training Specificity Principle
Adaptations depend on the type of overload imposed.
Exercise that develops one aspect of fitness contributes little to other components of fitness.
Therefore, to develop a particular fitness component, exercises must be performed that are specifically designed for that component.
3. Individual Differences Principle
Genetic factors influence the training response. Some people respond more readily to a specific training workload than others
4. Reversibility Principle
Once a person reaches a certain fitness level, regular physical activity must be maintained to prevent de-conditioning, or loss of functional capacity.
If training load has to be reduced, fitness improvements are best maintained by cutting frequency and duration rather than intensity.
2. Choose the appropriate activity
4. Plan the training load
Set a target intensity, duration, and frequency for each activity – overload principle
Get in shape gradually!