Introduction to the course l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 23

Introduction to the Course PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Introduction to the Course Justin Champion Room C208 - Tel: 3273 www.staffs.ac.uk/personel/engineering_and_technology/jjc1 Introduction to the course Contents What are we looking at History Digital to analogue Mobile technology Breakdown of the course Assements

Download Presentation

Introduction to the Course

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Introduction to the course l.jpg

Introduction to the Course

Justin Champion

Room C208 - Tel: 3273

www.staffs.ac.uk/personel/engineering_and_technology/jjc1


Introduction to the course2 l.jpg

Introduction to the course

  • Contents

    • What are we looking at

    • History

      • Digital to analogue

    • Mobile technology

      • Breakdown of the course

      • Assements


Introduction to the course3 l.jpg

Introduction to the course

  • What we are looking at

    • Mobile devices using cellular communications

    • Looking at how they work

    • Uses of this technology

    • We are not considering

      • Mobile voice technology

      • Wireless Technology

        • Wi-Fi

        • Bluetooth

        • These do not support any roaming


Introduction to the course4 l.jpg

Digital

Multimedia

Analogue

1990’s

1980’s

2000 +

Introduction to the course

  • Evolution of Personal Communication System’s


Introduction to the course5 l.jpg

Introduction to the course

  • History

    • 1876 Graham bell creates the phone

    • 1878 First exchange in Connecticut, USA.

      • Gradual spread

        • Analogue Publicly Switched Telephone Network

          • Used throughout the world

    • 1979

      • (ISDN) Digital Communications started on the PSTN

    • 1985 Mobile phones start in the UK

    • 1993 ADSL introduced

    • 2001 GPRS service started

    • 2004 EDGE predicted to start

    • 200? 3G service starting

      • This is ongoing if ever to happen as discussed in lectures


Introduction to the course6 l.jpg

Introduction to the course

  • History of the phone

    • Created by Graham Bell in 1875

    • He created what we know as a microphone

    • In 1876 the patent for a telephone was submitted

    • 1878 first telephone exchange was created

      • In New Haven, Connecticut, USA


Introduction to the course7 l.jpg

Introduction to the course

  • Publicly Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

    • Also know as Plain Old Telephone System (POTS)

    • This is the telephone network we all use every day

      • Wired

      • Controlled by British Telecom in the UK

      • Parts of the network are Analogue

        • Increasingly using Digital Communications

        • Last mile is still analogue today!


Introduction to the course8 l.jpg

Introduction to the course

  • Communicating

    • To allow communication a circuit must be completed between two phone devices

    • This circuit will then allow the analogue signals to travel between them

      • Voice in the early days


Introduction to the course9 l.jpg

Introduction to the course

  • Switching

    • The first automated exchange was created in 1889

    • Almon Strowger a undertaker created this exchange

      • He was annoyed that a opposition undertaker who’s wife worked in the exchange was getting all the burial work


Introduction to the course analogue l.jpg

Introduction to the course - Analogue

  • Analogue problems

    • Further the signal travels the weaker it gets

    • A clear signal will degrade

      • Loss power

      • Also gain interference

Strength

Time / Distance


Introduction to the course analogue11 l.jpg

Introduction to the course - Analogue

[email protected]

Hello


Introduction to the course digital l.jpg

+5v

1

0

-5v

Introduction to the course - Digital

  • Digital Communications

    • Allows accurate sending of signals

    • The signal still degrades

    • It is possible though to still get a signal back even with loss

1100101110010

1100101110010


Introduction to the course digital13 l.jpg

Introduction to the course - Digital

  • Analogue to Digital Conversion (ADC)

    • Regular samples are taken from the signal

      • Each given a value depending on the number of bits

        • Example shown uses 8 bits

127

-127


Introduction to the course digital14 l.jpg

Introduction to the course - Digital

  • Analogue to Digital Conversion (ADC)

    • Regular samples are taken from the signal

      • Each given a value depending on the number of bits

        • Example shown uses 8 bits storing values between 127 & -127

127

-127


Introduction to the course15 l.jpg

Introduction to the course

  • Sampling Rate

    • Needs to be sufficient to gain all of the analogue signal

      • If it is not a lot of the signal is lost as in the example shown in the previous example

      • Nyquist’s law tells us the minimum sampling rate

        • Sampling Rate = Highest Frequency * 2

    • Telephones use

      • 3.4 KHz sampling rate for voice calls

      • 8 KHz for digital calls

      • 1 KHz = 1000 cycles a second


Introduction to the course16 l.jpg

Introduction to the course

  • PSTN Modular

    • The PSTN is a modular design

    • New parts can be added to the network as required

      • Mobile communications

      • Satellite Communications

    • SS7 allows this as discussed in a future week


Introduction to the course17 l.jpg

Introduction to the course

  • Mobile Communications

    • Started with Mobile phones

      • Which were voice only

      • Limited battery life

      • Limited roaming capability

      • Limited quality

      • Unsecured

    • Advent of Digital phones

      • Allowed for better use of this phone technology

      • Allowed the user to roam and receive calls anywhere

      • Call were encrypted

      • The use of digital communications also allowed for data calls


Introduction to the course18 l.jpg

Introduction to the course

  • Roaming capability

    • Brought forward technology

      • Dual/Tri Band phones

      • Satellite phones

        • Expensive about £1.20 a minute for a world phone call

    • This allowed the user to move from the office/home environment and still be connected.

    • Laptops

      • As computers got smaller it was now possible to carry it with you

      • As the computer is available the data was required for it


Introduction to the course19 l.jpg

Introduction to the course

  • Data Use

    • GSM phones allowed 9.6 Kbps data communications

      • Enough for email and simple file transfers

    • SMS messaging is the most popular data use

    • Voice calls are coming to the peak of the popularity

      • Additional avenues of revenue are required

      • Increased data is a obvious choice

      • Charge the user for the packet received

      • Charge for the services they are accessing

      • i.e. Football results service


Introduction to the course20 l.jpg

Introduction to the course

  • Personal Communication Services (PCS)

    • We will soon have the ability for anyone to access digital information like the Internet.

      • Unlike the Internet, there will be value added service from day one

        • Video on Demand

        • Paying your credit card bill

        • Ordering services

      • Value added services will be the primary goal of the PCS

        • This will be needed to pay for the infrastructure and licenses paid for

    • Each user will be able to view the information as they want it

      • Central control will not be put upon on the users

      • Differing levels of hardware capability will effect the end presentation


Introduction to the course21 l.jpg

Introduction to the course

  • Weekly Breakdown

    • 1 – This lecture

    • 2 – 1G & 2G technology

    • 3 – Device Technology

    • 4 – General Packet Radio Service

    • 5 – Enhanced Data GSM Environment

    • 6 – Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS)

    • 7 – CDMA 2000

    • 8 – I-Mode and WAP

    • 9 – 2G and 3G Handover methods

    • 10 – PCS

    • 11 – 4G, the future


Introduction to the course22 l.jpg

Introduction to the course

  • Assessment

    • Assignment 50%

      • This will be one piece of written work of about 4000 words

      • This work will need independent research by the student to discuss the topic of WCDMA

    • Examination 50%

      • This will be a formal examination during the faculties exam period

    • Weighting

      • The weighting of each part will be evenly split


Introduction to the course23 l.jpg

Introduction to the course

  • Summary

    • What is the Personal Communication System

    • What we will cover

    • What the assessment will be


  • Login