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Research-based Spin-offs Issues in benchmarking OECD member country performance Workshop Objectives Review of definitions and data available Elaboration of spin-off models/typology Review of strategies and policies for the promotion of spin-offs

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research based spin offs

Research-based Spin-offs

Issues in benchmarking OECD member country performance

Technology and Innovation Policy Committee (8 December 1999)

workshop objectives
Workshop Objectives
  • Review of definitions and data available
  • Elaboration of spin-off models/typology
  • Review of strategies and policies for the promotion of spin-offs
  • Evaluation of spin-offs as indicator of health of public-private interface in NIS

Technology and Innovation Policy Committee (8 December 1999)

tip benchmarking project
TIP Benchmarking Project
  • Spin-offs are onemeasurable mx of tech transfer b/t public and private sectors
  • We want to compare performance, but there are methodology challenges:
    • definitions
    • data comparability
    • weighting spin-offs in benchmarking exercise
  • Country input important to future work

Technology and Innovation Policy Committee (8 December 1999)

what counts as a public research based spin off
What counts as a public research-based spin-off?
  • No standard definition
  • Narrow: any new firm which includes a public sector or univ employee as a founder
  • Broader: employee founders + licensees + firms in which the institution holds equity
  • Broadest: employees + licensees + equity + students/alumni + incubator firms + other?

Technology and Innovation Policy Committee (8 December 1999)

questionnaire answers
Questionnaire Answers

Technology and Innovation Policy Committee (8 December 1999)

where to draw the line
Where to draw the line?
  • Too narrow: undercounts frequency with which countries/institutions generate new firms.
  • Too broad: distinction b/t public sector spin-offs and high tech start-ups becomes fuzzy.
  • Definitional consistency needed for OECD Benchmarking study

Technology and Innovation Policy Committee (8 December 1999)

spin off formation rates
Spin-off formation rates
  • Not regularly monitored by most countries
  • A handful of countries have national data
    • Belgium, France, Germany, Norway
    • obtainable for Canada, UK, US
  • Institutional or regional v. national data
  • Yearly formation rates v. cumulative totals
  • Normalization of rates by researcher, institution, R&D funding

Technology and Innovation Policy Committee (8 December 1999)

type of data
Type of Data

Technology and Innovation Policy Committee (8 December 1999)

future work 1
Future work (1)
  • Correspondence with governments to clarify definition and data sent to OECD
  • Focus on countries w/ national level data
  • More limited comparisons of countries with institutional or regional data, e.g. growth rates
  • Cooperation with other projects

Technology and Innovation Policy Committee (8 December 1999)

spin off typologies
Spin-off typologies
  • What exactly is exchanged between the public sector and a private spin-off?
      • Personnel, capital, licenses, physical space, equipment, contacts, know-how and services.
  • Investments made and returns expected
  • Options available to public sector institutions: spin-offs by design!
  • Advantages and disadvantages...

Technology and Innovation Policy Committee (8 December 1999)

policies and strategies
Policies and Strategies
  • Funding
  • Incentives
    • IP rights allocation, licensing fees and royalties
    • rewards for entrepreneurship
    • personal, professional, financial risk reduction
  • Culture of entrepreneurship
  • Longer term support structures
    • finding partners, management & marketing services

Technology and Innovation Policy Committee (8 December 1999)

data on lifecycles
Data on Lifecycles
  • Sparse information on how spin-offs grow and their long term prospects
    • Financial needs
    • Size and structure
    • Growth and survival rates
    • Exit strategies
  • Impressionistic -- spin-offs are small, grow relatively slowly, but survive longer than general population of SMEs

Technology and Innovation Policy Committee (8 December 1999)

future work 2
Future Work (2)
  • Role of the public sector in financing early stage public sector spin-offs
  • Data on the initial capital needs and burn rates of spin-offs
  • What are the funding sources?
  • What further info on spin-off life-cycles is of interest to member countries?

Technology and Innovation Policy Committee (8 December 1999)

spin offs and benchmarking
Spin-offs and Benchmarking
  • What is so special about spin-offs?
    • High skilled jobs, new firms, new industries, effect on public research priorities, role as intermediary.
  • Are spin-offs a necessity for a healthy NIS?
  • What should countries strive for:
    • existence of some spin-offs, steady growth rates, balance with other tech transfer mechanisms

Technology and Innovation Policy Committee (8 December 1999)

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