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Developing Academic Discourse Skills For English Learners in Grades 4-12 Through Teacher-Mediated Discussion and Writing Santa Clara County Office of Education October 22-23, 2008 Dr. Kate Kinsella San Francisco State University [email protected] Instructional Priorities During All Lessons

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Developing Academic Discourse Skills

For English Learners in Grades 4-12

Through Teacher-Mediated

Discussion and Writing

Santa Clara County Office of Education

October 22-23, 2008

Dr. Kate Kinsella

San Francisco State University

[email protected]


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Instructional PrioritiesDuring All Lessons

  • clearly articulated evidence checks of verbal and non-verbal lesson engagement

  • a balance of student talk and teacher talk

  • more academic English than conversational English

  • daily opportunities for mediated speaking and writing

  • consistent explicit scaffolding of the lesson’s conceptual, strategic and linguistic demands

  • increased learner confidence and competence


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The Effects of Weaknesses in Oral Language

on Reading Growth & Academic Achievement

(Hirsch, 1996)

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

High Oral Language

in Kindergarten

Reading Age Level

5.2 years difference

Low Oral Language in Kindergarten

What Can We Do

To INTENTIONALLY

Narrow This Verbal Gap?

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Chronological Age


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Learning Journal Reflection

by an Adolescent English Learner

“The class where I think I am a passive person is my

English class because in English I can’t express what

I want. Yes, I do say a little bit, but not how I would like to.

I don’t feel like participate because I am afraid to say

something wrong or pronunciate a word badly. I don’t like

to be wrong and I think it is better to be quiet than to be

wrong. That’s why I think I am a passive learner in

English class, because I don’t want to be shamed.”

Consuelo (9th grade)

Step to College Class

Dr. Kinsella, Fall 2002


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Learner EngagementKinsella & Feldman

To attract and maintain a learner’s interest and

active involvement in all lesson content and related

tasks, with clearly articulated verbal or non-verbal

“evidence checks” of a concrete, productive, and

behaviorally observable response to instruction.

  • Underline a significant detail.

  • Thumbs up if you agree.

  • Add a relevant example to the graphic organizer.

  • Share your perspective with your partner.


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Characteristics of Disengaged Learners

  • Beyond “showing up” in class, haven’t established

    concrete goals for schooling.

  • View classroom learning as a spectator sport

    rather than a participatory sport.

  • Don’t perceive that they are being held accountable

    for actively participating throughout a lesson.

  • Are often actively off task during critical lesson activities or in an “upright siesta”.

  • Feel incompetent and mask it with bravado and

    smart aleck remarks.

  • Rely on others to seek clarification and assistance.


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Engaged Learning Orientation:4th Grade Mixed-Ability Classroom


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Specific Engagement Strategies Introduced

by Dr. Anita Archer to the 4th Grade Class

  • Allow no hand raising: everyone responds

  • Use choral responses: verbal and physical

  • Model active listening: look, lean, whisper

  • Teach vs. anticipate desired student responses

  • Structure partner interactions: assign 1s and 2s


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Think-Pair-Share

What active, responsible learner behaviors and norms have you

modeled and/or clearly established

as expectations for your classroom?

Starter: One active learner norm I have established is (verb + -ing)

•using a public voice to respond during unified class discussions.


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Lesson Planning QuestionsFocused on Lesson Content Delivery

  • What content standards will I address?

  • What materials, activities and media will I utilize to best address these standards?

  • What exemplars of quality work will I provide to illustrate my lesson expectations?

  • How will I productively and manageably assess student learning?


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Lesson Planning QuestionsFocused on Learner Lesson Engagement

  • What language and literacy support must I

    integrate during my lesson?

  • When and how should I interrupt my instruction to elicit a student response?

  • What will be my “evidence checks” that

    students are responding to my instruction?

  • What are ideal opportunities to structure

    peer collaboration and interaction


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Evidence Checks of Learner Engagement

Non-Verbal - Physical Responses:

  • Highlight supporting details in a text.

  • Thumbs up if you had a similar answer.

  • Write an example in your vocabulary notes.

  • Point to the adjacent angle.


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Evidence Checks of Learner Engagement

Verbal Responses:

  • Using the academic sentence starter, share with your partner one reason you support or

    do not support a city-wide ban on plastic bags.

  • As I read aloud each supporting detail, wait for my hand signal, then say “relevant” if it is on topic and “irrelevant” if it does not directly support the main idea.


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Think-Pair-Share

Observation and Discussion Task:

Identify the specific ways in which this 6th grade ELD/reading intervention teacher structures the students’ lesson engagement.

Starter: She structured students’ lesson engagement by (verb + -ing)

• using partners strategically.


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Structured Oral Task: Grade 6 Vocabulary Instruction - Multiple Meaning Words


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Evidence Checks of Learner Engagement

Nonverbal Responses:

  • Point to the word hard.

  • Check to see if your partner found the word hard.

  • Point to #1 and see if your partner is in the right place.

  • Raise your hand if you and your partner talked

    about this meaning of hard.

  • 3-2-1 eyes up here.


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Evidence Checks of Learner Engagement

Verbal Choral Responses:

  • Everyone say hard.

    Verbal Partner Responses:

  • I know that one meaning of hard is…

    and twos you can go first.


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Think-Pair-Share

Observation and Discussion Task:

Identify the specific ways in which this 8th grade English teacher structures

the students’ lesson engagement.

Starter: She structured students’ lesson engagement by (verb + -ing)

• directing their attention to the written task on the overhead.


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Structured Student Interaction:8th Grade ELA Mixed-Ability Class


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Structured Student Interaction:8th Grade ELA Mixed-Ability Class


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Structured Student Interaction:8th Grade ELA Unified-Class Discussion


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Unproductive Ways to Check for Understanding in Mixed-Ability Classes

Ask any of these questions:

  • Is everybody clear on what to do?

  • Does anyone have a question?

  • Do you understand what to do?

  • All set?


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Productive Ways to Check for Understanding in Mixed-Ability Classes

Do one of the following tasks:

  • Tell everyone to write one question they have about the assigned task. Call on 2-3 students representing a range of proficiency to share, then address their concerns.

  • Tell partner #1 to explain to #2 what they are supposed to do. Tell #2 to confirm or clarify the task expectations. Call on #2s to raise their hand if they need further clarification.

  • If the assignment is a series of similar tasks (e.g., solving 5 problems, writing 3 future tense sentences), have students complete the first task and monitor for problems.


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Lesson Observation Task

  • Identify two missed opportunities to enhance student lesson engagement by structuring their nonverbal or verbal responses in this mixed-ability 8th grade English Language Arts.

  • _____________________________________________

  • _____________________________________________

Response Starter:

She could have enhanced student engagement by

(verb + ing:directing them to _, providing _)


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Vocabulary Knowledge RatingResponse Starters

  • One meaning of ___ is ___

  • I think __ could mean __.

  • I am not familiar with the word/term ___.

  • I have no idea what ___ means.

  • We feel confident that we know what __ means,

  • but we would appreciate some assistance with __.


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Methods of Ensuring More Democratic Participation

  • Partner students to share individual responses (to ensure everyone responds) before calling on random individuals and volunteers during the unified-class discussion.

  • Place names on cards or popsicle sticks and call on students randomly (after partner responses).

  • Monitor students’ written responses and verbal responses during partnering. “Nominate” 2-3 students to jump-start the discussion: “I plan to call on you to share this idea during our discussion”; “I would like you to be our discussion jumper cable and share this response.”


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Lesson Reflection Task

Select the class you are teaching that has the greatest range of proficiency in language and literacy. Recall the lesson you taught yesterday. Identify one missed opportunity to scaffold students’ verbal response and bolster their academic language proficiency.

Response Starter:

When I asked students to ___ (verb phrase),

I could have provided this response frame:

________________________________________.


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Structured Oral Task: Grade 8 ELDVocabulary Frontloading to Support Writing


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Evidence of the Dire Need for StructuredCognitive and Linguistic Engagementin Linguistically Diverse Classrooms

  • English learners are typically passive observers during lesson discussions, and neither prepared linguistically or held accountable for contributing.

  • Only 4% of English Learners’ school day is spent engaging in student talk.

  • Only 2% of English Learners’ day is spent discussing focal lesson content (but not necessarily using relevant academic language).

    Arreaga-Mayer & Perdomo-Rivera, 1996


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Structured Academic Talk

Think-Write-Pair-Share

Discussion Task:

Why do teachers working with struggling readers and English learners tend to contribute the majority of the ideas during

critical class discussions?


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Vocabulary Tool Kit Words

contribute

con•trib•ute

verb

to give or share something

SPcontribuir

critical

cri•ti•cal

adjective

1) saying something is bad

2) very important

SPcritico


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Think-Write-Pair-Share

Starter: Many __ (describing word: adjective) teachers tend to contribute the majority of the ideas during critical class discussions because they __ (action word: verb)

Adjectives: content area teachers, secondary teachers

Verbs:suspect, fear, don’t understand, lack

Model: Many reading intervention teachers tend to contribute the majority of the ideas during critical class discussions because they haven’t adequately prepared their students for a confident response.


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Discussion Ground Rules

  • No hand-raising until I ask for volunteers.

  • Use your public discussion voice: two times slower and three times louder than conversation.

  • Sit up straight and keep hands away from your face.

  • Use the assigned sentence starter to share ideas.

  • Listen attentively and jot down one new idea.

  • Acknowledge similarities before sharing your idea.


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Language for Class Discussions:Acknowledging Similarities

  • Casual Conversational English

    Oh yeah. I know.

    That’s right.

  • Formal Spoken and Written English

    • My idea/experience/observation is similar to __’s.

    • I agree with __. I also think that …

    • My idea builds upon __’s.


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Think

(Write)

Share

Pair



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Steps in Setting Up: Word Bank- Gr. 6Think-Write-Pair-Share

  • Direct students’ attention to the written task.

  • Provide a sentence starter to frame responses.

  • Provide a word bank to bolster vocabulary use.

  • Model a response, verbally and in writing.

  • Clarify the sentence structure and/or grammar necessary for an appropriate response.

  • Monitor students’ writing process.


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Steps in Facilitating Discussion: Word Bank- Gr. 6Think-Write-Pair-Share

  • Partner students to rehearse responses.

  • Assign active listening and note-taking tasks.

  • Jump-start with a “nominated volunteer.”

  • Require use of public voices and the starter.

  • Randomly call on a few students before soliciting volunteers.

  • Refrain from offering your perspective until students have had ample opportunity to share.


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Tips for Dealing with “Fast Finishers” Word Bank- Gr. 6During Structured Discussions

  • Assign a second idea using the same starter.

  • Assign a second more complex starter.

  • Prompt students to raise their pencil to signal they have written a thoughtful, edited response for you to “green light” to be a potential discussion jumper cable.

  • Make students report their partner’s idea.

  • Provide an incentive for writing a thoughtful second response (e.g., a quiz pass, preferred seating).


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Language For Class Discussions: Word Bank- Gr. 6Reporting Someone Else’s Idea

  • Casual Conversational English

    __ said that …

    __ told me that …

  • Formal Spoken and Written English

    __ pointed out that … According to __,

    __ indicated that …

    __ observed that …

    __ emphasized that …


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Structured Academic Response Word Bank- Gr. 6Reporting a Partner’s Idea


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Sample Assignment Pass Word Bank- Gr. 6

Assignment Pass

This pass entitles ________ to one free Reading Journal entry or Vocabulary Quiz.

This pass cannot be used for a workshop

paragraph or project.


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Academic Register vs. Social Register Word Bank- Gr. 6

Task:What are common challenges faced by U.S. immigrants?

Students’ Default Conversational Register (Vernacular)

Jobs. A new culture. You have to learn English.

Formal Academic Discussion Register

  • One common challenge faced by immigrants is learning a new language.

Formal Written Academic Discourse (Expository Essay, Chapter)

Recent immigrants to the United States face many predictable challenges.

One challenge experienced by most newcomers is learning an entirely

different language. English communication and literacy skills are critical for

adult immigrants if they want to have a well paid job or attend college.

However, due to the fact that the majority of recent adult immigrants …


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Response Frame in Academic Register Word Bank- Gr. 6

One common challenge faced by

new immigrants is _ (verb + ing)

learning a new language.

Word Bank:learning _

dealing with _

finding _

understanding _


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Lesson Observation Task Word Bank- Gr. 68th Grade English/Social Studies


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Preparing Appropriate Word Bank- Gr. 6Sentence Starters Requires:

  • Familiarity with your students’ reading and language proficiency levels

  • Some practical English language knowledge

  • Conscientious analysis of the conceptual and linguistic demands of lessons

  • Writing the starters before the lesson begins, on a board, transparency, etc. (versus “on the fly”)


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Early Intermediate Word Bank- Gr. 6

Intermediate

Early Advanced

People immigrate to have better _

(noun: jobs, schools, neighborhoods)

People from many countries immigrate _ (infinitive verb: to find, to escape)

People from diverse countries immigrate to the U.S. due to _ (noun: war, poverty) in their homeland.

Response Starters Considering Levels of English Proficiency

Task: Why do many people decide to immigrate to the U.S.?


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Early Intermediate Word Bank- Gr. 6

Intermediate

Early Advanced

An effective lesson partner is _

(adjective: helpful, polite, prepared)

An effective lesson partner tries _

(infinitive verb: to help…, to complete…)

I appreciate working with a partner on lesson tasks who _

(verb + -s: assists…, respects…)

Response Starters Considering Levels of English Proficiency

Task: What are characteristics of an effective lesson partner?


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Write Appropriate Starters Word Bank- Gr. 6for this Structured Discussion Task

Discussion Task:What are two things teachers can do

to get more students to participate in

class discussions?

Word Bank: ______________________________

______________________________

Basic Starter: ______________________________

______________________________

Challenge Starter: ______________________________

______________________________


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Write Appropriate Starters Word Bank- Gr. 6for this Structured Discussion Task

Discussion Task: How do plastic bags harm the environment?

Word Bank: ______________________________

______________________________

Basic Starter: ______________________________

______________________________

Challenge Starter: ______________________________

______________________________


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Write Appropriate Starters Word Bank- Gr. 6for this Structured Discussion Task

Discussion Task: Why do you think the recycling rate for plastic bags in the U.S. is so low while the recycling rate for paper is much higher?

Word Bank: ______________________________

______________________________

Basic Starter: ______________________________

______________________________

Challenge Starter: ______________________________

______________________________


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How to Effectively Assign Word Bank- Gr. 6a Sentence Starter with English Learners and Basic Readers

  • Display the starter using one color.

  • Add your response using another color.

  • Read your entire response with expression.

  • Point out the grammatical expectations for writing a complete sentence using the starter.

  • Provide a relevant word bank to stimulate thinking and more precise language use.


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How to Build Reading Fluency Word Bank- Gr. 6with a Response StarterBefore Partnering Students

  • Direct students’ attention to your response.

  • Cue them to read along silently while you read your response aloud with expression.

  • Read aloud again using the oral cloze routine.

  • Read aloud the entire response in unison.

  • Have students read their own written response silently a few times in preparation for sharing.


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Think-Pair-Share Word Bank- Gr. 6

Discussion Task:

What are two important factors to consider

when partnering students in mixed-ability classes for important lesson tasks?

Starter:One important factor to consider

is a student’s __ (noun phrase)

• attendance record


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Pragmatics of Structuring Partners Word Bank- Gr. 6

1. TeacherAssigns based on:

- level of literacy (reading and writing)

- proficiency in English (oral language, vocabulary)

- performance on standardized tests, CELDT

- overall EQ, social skills

- lesson engagement track record

- alternate ranking (#1 w/ #16, #15 w/ #30), no highs w/lows


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Pragmatics of Structuring Partners Word Bank- Gr. 6

2) Integrate brief, structured partner tasks in every

lesson rather than periodically:

  • to foster a collaborative learning climate.

  • to maximize the number of students who

    actually during a critical discussion or task.

  • to ensure that partnering tasks are familiar

    efficient routines rather than random activities.


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Pragmatics of Structuring Partners Word Bank- Gr. 6

3) Identify partner roles: 1 and 2 and specify roles: Partner 1 share first, etc.

4) Change partners routinely:

at the end of a unit, month, quarter.

5) Avoid partnering the most proficient

students with the least proficient or

two struggling students.


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Pragmatics of Structuring Partners Word Bank- Gr. 6

6) Determine two reliable “floaters” who can

work productively with a student missing

a partner.

7) Assign sentence frames that structure

competent and confident verbal responses.

8) Limit tasks to 30 seconds - 2 minutes.


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Receptive vs. Expressive Word Bank- Gr. 6

Word Knowledge

Receptive Vocabulary:

words that are recognized and understood when we

hear or see them; typically much larger than expressive vocabulary, and may include many words to which we assign some meaning, even if we don’t know their full definitions and connotations, or ever use them as we speak and write

Expressive (Productive) Vocabulary:

words we use comfortably in speaking and writing


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“Considerate” Learner’s Dictionaries Word Bank- Gr. 6

for English Learners in Grades 4-12

PEARSON LONGMAN www.longman.com/dictionaries

BASIC

HIGH INTERMEDIATE

ADVANCED


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Demonstration: Word Bank- Gr. 6Explicit Vocabulary Instructional Routine


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Bolstering Oral Language Production Using the Vocabulary Routine

Austrian

language

idiolect

vocabulary,

body-building

register

1

2

3


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Explicit Vocabulary Instruction RoutineWith a Structured Oral and Written Task

Writing Task:Out of the U.S. media sources for world news, _____ is the _____because _____.


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Explicit Vocabulary Instruction RoutineWith a Structured Oral and Written Task

forensic

perfect

CSI Las Vegas

apotheosis

height

Writing Task:Out of the U.S. media sources for world news, _____ is the _____because _____.


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Vocabulary Instructional Routine RoutineGr. 8 English Language Arts


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Vocabulary Instructional Routine RoutineGr. 4 Full Inclusion


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Vocabulary Instructional Routine RoutineStructured Writing TaskGr. 4 Full Inclusion



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Explicit RoutineVocabulary Teaching Routine

  • Guide students in reading and pronouncing the word.

  • Have students clap/tap out the syllables for longer words.

  • Provide a cognate connection when possible.

  • Have students rate their current word knowledge.

  • Explain the meaning using familiar language.

  • Provide an example within their experiential realm.

  • Provide an additional example and structure an oral task.

  • Model an appropriate response with a sentence starter.

  • Partner students to share responses using the starter before calling on individuals to share.

  • Check comprehension with a final focused question/task.

  • Assign a focused writing task to bolster word knowledge.


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Practice Writing Structured RoutineOral & Written Tasks for New Words


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Bolster Expressive Word Knowledge Routinewith Additional Writing Tasks

Design writing tasks that require providing:

1) the appropriate form of the word (e.g., plural, past tense);

2) content that illustrates their conceptual grasp of the word.

  • Angelina Jolie and Brad Pitt have _________________

    worldwide fame not only through their ______________

  • but also their __________________________________

  • I plan to double my reading fluency score this school year;

  • I will ________________ a score of _______________

  • by reading ___________________________________


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Discussion Setup RoutineThink-Write


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Discussion Facilitation RoutinePair-Share #1


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Discussion Facilitation RoutinePair-Share #2


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Discussion Facilitation RoutineWhole Group Reporting


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30-Minute Essay RoutineWriting Thesis Statement


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30-Minute Essay: I do It RoutineWriting Detail #1 and Support


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30-Minute Essay: You’ll Do It RoutineWriting Detail #2 and Support


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