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Historical Geography of Post-Soviet Era. Choices in late 1980s. Reform, then democracy Shock the economy, then (maybe) open up Models of Chile, China. Democracy, then reform Open up society to reform it U.S. thought “totalitarian” system not reformable.

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choices in late 1980s
Choices in late 1980s
  • Reform, then democracy
    • Shock the economy,
    • then (maybe) open up
    • Models of Chile, China

Democracy, then reform

  • Open up society to reform it
  • U.S. thought “totalitarian”

system not reformable

mikhail gorbachev 1985 91
Mikhail Gorbachev, 1985-91
  • Democracy,

then reform

  • Socialism with

a human face

  • Openness
  • Restructuring
glasnost openness
Glasnost (Openness)
  • End to secrecy
    • After Chernobyl 1986
  • Freedom to

assemble, speak, etc.

  • Open discussion of problems
glasnost unanticipated effects
Glasnost: Unanticipated effects
  • Unleashed nationalisms
  • Decentralization spreads

conflict to local scale

  • No one calls shots;

little democratic experience

perestroika restructuring
Perestroika (Restructuring)

Political:

Reduce Party control

Economic:

Privatize non-industrial

economy

place name changes de sovietization
Place name changes:De-Sovietization

Leningrad

Gorky

Frunze

St. Petersburg

Nizhny Novgorod

Bishkek

place name changes indigenization
Place name changes:Indigenization

Byelorussia

Yakutia

Kishinev

Belarus

Sakha

Chisinau

,

place name changes transliteration
Place name changes:Transliteration

Gomel

Tadzhikistan

Nakhichevan

Kirghizstan

Homyel

Tajikistan

Naxçivan

Kyrgyzstan

perestroika unanticipated effects
Perestroika: Unanticipated effects
  • Reluctance to give up security
  • Mistrust competition, inequality
  • Economic output lower,

food shortages/lines

gorbachev era
Gorbachev Era
  • Reversed “Brezhnev

Doctrine” in E. Europe

  • Some allies more

hard-line than USSR

  • Hard-liners tested him
    • Lithuania, Georgia,

Azerbaijan massacres

afghanistan war 1979 89
Afghanistan war, 1979-89
  • Underestimated Muslim

mujahadin rebels

  • Bogged down like Vietnam
  • Stinger missiles shot

down helicopters

afghanistan war 1979 8913
Afghanistan war, 1979-89
  • Withdrew 1989
  • Pro-Soviet regime

ousted 1992

  • Bitter Afghantsy

(veterans)

poland hungary
Poland & Hungary
  • Western-oriented
  • Soured on socialism

after repression

    • Hungary 1956
    • Poland 1970 & 1981
  • Regimes liberalized
better off first to revolt
Better-off first to revolt

Poland, Hungary in Warsaw Pact

Baltic States in USSR

Slovenia, Croatia in Yugoslavia

Czech Rep. in Czechoslovakia

better off first to revolt16
Better-off first to revolt

Socialist state prevented full development

Resented supporting poorer areas

“Pull” of European Union integration

western tv signals
Western TV signals
  • Finnish TV in Estonia
  • W. German TV in GDR,

Czech., Poland

  • Austrian TV in Hungary
tv stations as battlegrounds
TV stationsas battlegrounds

Ostankino tower clashes,

Moscow, 1991, 1993

Romanian Revolution 1989

Lithuania

massacre 1990

U.S. bombs Serbia 1999

poland 1989
Poland 1989
  • Solidarity strikes,

peasant party force election

  • 1st non-Communist

prime minister appointed;

Lech Walesa later pres.

hungary 1989
Hungary 1989
  • Party drops power monopoly
  • Declares republic, opens discussion of 1956
  • Opens western border
east germany gdr 1989
East Germany(GDR) 1989
  • “Tourists” cross Hungarian border to Austria (brain drain)
  • Huge youth rallies spread

from Leipzig

  • Fear of Stasi secret police lost
  • Gorbachev prevents crackdown
berlin wall 1989
Berlin Wall 1989
  • Minister on TV ends

travel restrictions

  • Berlin Wall falls overnight after 28 years
  • GDR dissolves 1990, becomes FRG poor region
post soviet paths 1989
Post-Soviet paths, 1989
  • “Reformed” Communist parties
  • Pro-West consumer capitalism
  • “Third Way”: democratic socialism / Greens
  • Right-wing ethnic nationalism
czechoslovakia 1989
Czechoslovakia 1989
  • Student protests repressed
  • “Velvet Revolution” returns leaders from 1968 Prague Spring
  • Dissident writer

Vaclav Havel president

czechoslovakia ends 1993
Czechoslovakiaends 1993
  • Czech Rep. More developed than Slovakia
  • Czechs want quick NATO, EU entry
  • “Velvet Divorce” of leaders, not people
bulgaria 1989
Bulgaria 1989
  • Russians popular in

Slav Orthodox country

  • Communists win 1990

election; lose 1991

  • Economic reforms difficult
romanian revolution 1989
Romanian Revolution 1989
  • Dictator Ceaucescu

wooed West

  • Autocratic “personality

cult,” secret police

  • Military revolt executed

him, poverty remained

baltics 1990
Baltics1990
  • Lithuania declares

full independence

  • Soviet crackdown
  • Latvia, Estonia

declare sovereignty

(own laws supreme)

boris yeltsin 1991 99
Boris Yeltsin,1991-99
  • Party official from Urals; resigned 1990
  • Modernizer; Russian Federation Pres. 1991
  • Russia needs own identity apart from USSR,

declares republic laws supreme

august 1991 coup
August 1991 Coup
  • Day before Union of

Sovereign States declared

  • Gorbachev under arrest

by KGB; VP in power

  • Moscow KGB declined

to arrest Yeltsin (on tank)

  • Gorbachev rescued,

coup collapses

coup aftermath
Coup Aftermath
  • Yeltsin undercut Gorbachev as main leader
  • Baltics independence recognized in Sept.
  • Other republics start to declare as “sovereign”
december 1991 endgame
December 1991 Endgame
  • Russia, Ukraine, Belarus independent
  • Declare “Commonwealth of Independent States”
  • 8 independent republics join CIS (Georgia later)
  • Gorbachev resigns, Soviet flag lowered
slide33

Russia successor

state to USSR

aftermath
Aftermath
  • Ukraine, Belarus,

Kazakstan disarm nukes

  • Economic, military

ties disrupted

between republics

  • Rise of “mafia”

economy, crime

shock therapy

Close command industries

  • Reduce or end subsidies
  • Privatize industrial economy
  • High unemployment,
  • inflation, inequality
“Shock therapy”
spatial economy

Losing regions

    • Older military-industrial
      • Agricultural, Resources
      • Ethnic minority
Spatial economy
  • Winning regions
      • Hub cities
    • Gateway
post communists 1990s
Post-Communists, 1990s
  • Elected in Poland, Hungary, Lithuania!
  • Slowing down shock therapy?
  • Seen as capitalist/modern,

not nationalist, social conservative

opposition to yeltsin
Opposition to Yeltsin
  • Communists & nationalists
  • lament loss of Empire
  • Slavophile populists mistrust
  • West; often anti-Semitic
  • Yeltsin tanks fire on
  • Parliament, 1993
  • Candidates: Rutskoi, Lebed, Zhirinovsky, Zyuganov
yeltsin s demise
Yeltsin’s Demise
  • Financial crash
  • Health problems
  • Drunk as a skunk
  • Corruption extended to family
  • Ethnic minority autonomy

(soft on Chechens?)

vladimir putin 2000
Vladimir Putin, 2000-?
  • Underestimated as

Yeltsin puppet

  • Ex-KGB in Germany;

knows West well

  • Yet also placates

“Eurasians,”

Soviet memories

chechnya
Chechnya
  • Won vs. Russia in

1990, 1994-96

  • Declared independence
  • Key Caspian oil pipeline
slide42

Putin’s ruthless brutality won admirers

Russians flatten Grozny, capital of Chechnya, 2000

authoritarianism returning
Authoritarianism returning
  • Media controls
  • Centralization in Moscow
  • Ethnic autonomy lessened
  • Economic heavy hand
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