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Section A File Basics CHAPTER 4 File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup PARSONS/OJA Page 168 Chapter 4 File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup Chapter PREVIEW Create valid names for files and folders Use file management features

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File management virus protection and backup l.jpg

Section A

File Basics

CHAPTER

4

File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup

PARSONS/OJA

Page 168


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Chapter

4

File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup

Chapter PREVIEW

  • Create valid names for files and folders

  • Use file management features

  • Describe how a computer physically stores files

  • Explain viruses, boot sector viruses, macro viruses, Trojan horses, worms, and Denial of Service attacks

  • Describe how antivirus software is used

  • Understand backup and restore plans

  • Compare backup devices

Page 169


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Section A

Chapter

4

File Basics

Filenames, Extensions, and Formats: What are the rules for naming files?

  • Every file has a name, and might also have a filename extension

  • You must provide a valid filename that adheres to rules or file-naming conventions

Page 170


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Section A

Chapter

4

File Basics

What are the rules for naming a file?

Page 170


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Section A

Chapter

4

File Basics

Are filename extensions important?

  • Filename extension further describes the file contents

  • Separated by the filename with a dot

    • Readme.txt, Newsletter.doc

  • Related to the file format, the arrangement of data in a file, and the coding scheme used to represent the data

  • Most software programs have a native file format that is used to store files

  • They display any files that have the filename extension for its native file format

  • Page 171


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    Section A

    Chapter

    4

    File Basics

    Are filename extensions important?

    Click to start

    Page 171


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    Section A

    Chapter

    4

    File Basics

    File Locations, Folders, and Paths: How do I designate a file’s location?

    • You first specify where file will be stored

      • A: for floppy disk drive

      • C: for hard drive

      • D through Z for additional storage

    • CD, Zip and DVD drive letters are not standardized

    Page 172


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    Section A

    Chapter

    4

    File Basics

    What’s the purpose of folders?

    • An operating system maintains a list of files called a directory for each disk, CD-ROM or DVD

    • Folders - smaller lists within directories

    • A folder is separated from a drive letter and a filename by a backslash (\)

    Page 172


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    Section A

    Chapter

    4

    File Basics

    What’s the purpose of folders?

    • A file specification (path) is the drive letter, folder, filename, and extension that identifies a file

      C:\Music\Reggae\Marley One Love.mp3

    drive letter

    extension

    filename

    Primary Folder

    Secondary Folder

    Page 172


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    Section A

    Chapter

    4

    File Basics

    File Sizes and Dates. Sorting…

    Page 173


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    Section A

    Chapter

    4

    File Basics

    Is the file date important?

    • Your computer keeps track of the date that a file was created or last modified

    • The file date is useful if you have created several versions of a file and want to make sure that you know which version is the most recent

    Page 173


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    Section B

    Chapter

    4

    File Management

    What’s the difference between the Save option and the Save As option?

    Renaming file…Saving with new name

    Page 175


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    Section B

    Chapter

    4

    File Management

    What other options does the Save As dialog box provide?

    • You can use it to rename a file, delete a file, or create a folder

    Click to start

    Page 175


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    Section B

    Chapter

    4

    File Management

    File Management Utilities: How does the operating system help me manage files?

    • File manager utility software

      • provided by your computer operating system

      • helps you locate, rename, move, copy and delete files

    Page 176


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    Section B

    Chapter

    4

    File Management

    Windows Explorer: How do I use a file management utility?

    • Windows Explorer is an example of a file management utility

    Click to start

    Page 178


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    Section B

    Chapter

    4

    File Management

    Is data stored in specific places on a disk?

    Page 180


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    Section B

    Chapter

    4

    File Management

    How does a disk get formatted? Malfunctioning floppy disks…

    • Formatting utilities are supplied by operating system or by companies that manufacture the drives

    Page 180-81


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    Section B

    Chapter

    4

    File Management

    How does the operating system keep track of a file’s location?

    Page 182


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    Section B

    Chapter

    4

    File Management

    What happens when a file is deleted?

    • The OS simply changes the status of the file’s clusters to “empty” and removes the filename from the FAT. It doesn’t remove the data, just the references to it

    • Special file shredder software can be used to overwrite “empty” sectors with random 1s and 0s

      • Helpful if you want to make sure that your personal data no longer remains on the hard disk

      • Individual bought 158 used hard drives on EBAY just to obtain personal info on them

        • Tax returns, 3,700 credit card numbers, bank account numbers, legal and medical records

        • Only 12 were properly purged

      • What happens when you put your computer in the trash???

        • Europe requires recycling

          • 63 million PCs placed in U.S. landfills in 2003

    Page 182


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    Section B

    Chapter

    4

    File Management

    How does the Recycle Bin affect file deletions?

    • Deleted files are moved to the Recycle Bin folder

    • Helps to protect against accidental erasures

    • Can you retrieve files from the Recycle Bin???

    Page 183


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    Section B

    Chapter

    4

    File Management

    How does a disk become fragmented?

    • As computer files are added/deleted, parts of files tend to become scattered all over the disk

    • These fragmented files are stored in noncontiguous clusters

      • Slows drive performance

    • Defragmentation utility – rearranges the files on a disk so that they are stored in contiguous clusters.

    Page 183


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    Section B

    Chapter

    4

    File Management

    How does a disk become fragmented?

    Page 183


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    Section C

    Chapter

    4

    Computer Viruses

    Viruses, Trojan Horses, and Worms: What’s the technical definition of a virus?

    • A computer virus is a program that attaches itself to a file, reproduces itself, and spreads to other files

    • A virus can perform a trigger event:

      • corrupt and/or destroy data

      • display an irritating message

    • Key characteristic is their ability to “lurk” in a computer for days or months quietly replicating themselves

    Page 185


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    Section C

    Chapter

    4

    Computer Viruses

    What’s the technical definition of a virus?

    • File virus - a virus that attaches itself to an application program

      • Chernobyl - designed to lurk in computer until April 26

    • A boot sector virus infects the system files that your computer uses every time you turn it on.

      • Computer lab….

    • A macro virus infects a set of instructions called a “macro”.

      • Macro - a miniature program that usually contains legitimate instructions to automate document and worksheet production

      • File attachments

    Page 186


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    Section C

    Chapter

    4

    Computer Viruses

    How is a Trojan horse different from a virus?

    • A modern day Trojan horse is a computer program that appears to perform one function while actually doing something else

      • Not a virus, but may carry a virus

      • Does not replicate itself

    • Another type of Trojan horse looks like a log-in screen

    • PictureNote.Trojan – arrives as e-mail named picture.exe and then tries to steal login and e-mail passwords

    Page 186


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    Section C

    Chapter

    4

    Computer Viruses

    What’s a worm?

    • A software worm is a program designed to enter a computer system through security holes

      • usually through a network

      • does not need to be attached to a document to reproduce

    • 8/03: Blaster worm: attacks Air Canada’s reservation system

    • Denial of Service attacks

    Page 186-187


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    Section C

    Chapter

    4

    Computer Viruses

    How are viruses spread?

    Page 187


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    Section C

    Chapter

    4

    Computer Viruses

    How are viruses spread?

    • Viruses are spread through e-mails as well

      • 8/03: SoBig Virus

        • Placed virus on pc which sent e-mail to everyone in your address book with virus attached

        • Shut down CSX rail system

    • Macro viruses are usually found in MS Word and MS Excel files (.doc and .xls)

    • To keep safe, you can disable macros on files you do not trust

    Page 187-188


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    Section C

    Chapter

    4

    Computer Viruses

    What are the symptoms of a virus?

    • Your computer displays a vulgar, embarrassing or annoying message

    • Your computer develops unusual visual or sound effects

    • You have difficulty saving files: files mysteriously disappear

    • Your computer reboots suddenly

    • Your computer works very slowly

    • Your executable files unaccountably increase in size

    • Your computer starts sending out lots of e-mail messages on its own

    Page 188


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    Section C

    Chapter

    4

    Computer Viruses

    Too much Microsoft….

    • 95% of operating system software designed by Microsoft

    • If hackers can find a flaw in this software they can utilize this to impact many computers, not just a few….

    • If we used several different operating systems creating viruses would not be so much fun…

    • Recently a panel of “experts” called Microsoft’s dominance of the software market a national security concern

    Page 188


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    Section C

    Chapter

    4

    Computer Viruses

    Antivirus Software: What’s antivirus software?

    • Antivirus software is a set of utility programs that looks for and eradicates a wide spectrum of problems such as viruses, Trojan horses, and worms

    Page 189


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    Section C

    Chapter

    4

    Computer Viruses

    How does antivirus software work?

    • Hackers have created viruses that can insert themselves into unused portions of a program.

    • To counterattack the work of hackers, antivirus software designers created software with a checksum - a number calculated by combining binary values of all bytes in a file

      • compares checksum each time you run a program

    Page 189


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    Section C

    Chapter

    4

    Computer Viruses

    How does antivirus software work?

    • Antivirus software also checks for a virus signature – a unique series of bytes used to identify a known virus

    Page 189


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    Section C

    Chapter

    4

    Computer Viruses

    When should I use antivirus software?

    • “All the time”

      • Does slow machine performance

    • Most antivirus software allows you to specify what to check and when to check it

    • Norton Antivirus

    • McAfee Antivirus

    Page 189


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    Section C

    Chapter

    4

    Computer Viruses

    How often should I get an update?

    • New viruses and variations of old viruses are unleashed just about everyday

    • Check website of antivirus software publisher for periodic updates

    • Software can be set to update itself automatically. This is what you want…

    • Must also keep your operating system up to date with patches prepared by Microsoft

    • And if you have a home network, you need a firewall

    Page 190


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    Section D

    Chapter

    4

    Data Backup

    Backup and Restore Procedures: How do I make a backup?

    • Data backup, a copy of a file or the contents of a disk drive, provide the best all-round security for your data

    • A backup is usually stored on a different storage medium from the original files

    • The exact steps that you follow depend on your backup equipment, your backup software, and your personal backup plan

    • Data rewind

    Page 193


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    Section D

    Chapter

    4

    Data Backup

    How do I restore data?

    • You restore data from a backup to the original storage medium or its replacement

    Page 194


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    Section D

    Chapter

    4

    Data Backup

    What’s the best backup plan?

    Page 194


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    Section D

    Chapter

    4

    Data Backup

    Do I have to back up every file?

    • Not necessarily, you could just back up most important files such as your data files

    • Best is to select a strategy

      • Store data files in specific location. Offsite!

      • Also backup:

        • Internet connection information

        • E-mail folders

        • E-mail address book

        • Favorite URLs

        • Downloads

    Page 194-195


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    Section D

    Chapter

    4

    Data Backup

    How often should I back up my data?

    • Backup your data depending upon how much data you can afford to use

    • Under normal use, once-a-week should be good enough

    Page 196


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    Section D

    Chapter

    4

    Data Backup

    How many sets of backups do I need?

    • One backup is good, but in case your backup gets corrupted, you should maintain a rotating set of backups

    Page 196


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    Section D

    Chapter

    4

    Data Backup

    Will all of my backups contain the same files?

    • Full backup - copy of all files on a disk; safe but can take a long time

      • computer cannot be used during backup

      • backup device requires equal capacity

    • Differential backup - copy of all files that have changed since the last full backup

      • takes less time but more complex

      • requires one full backup and then you will make differential backups at regular intervals

    Page 196


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    Section D

    Chapter

    4

    Data Backup

    Will all of my backups contain the same files?

    • Incremental backup - copy of all files that have changed since the last backup

      • not necessarily since the last full backup, but since any previous backup

      • takes the least time but is most complex to restore

      • requires good recordkeeping

        • label correctly

    Page 196


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    Section D

    Chapter

    4

    Data Backup

    How can I make sure that my backups will work?

    • Test your backups periodically

    Page 197


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    Section D

    Chapter

    4

    Data Backup

    Do I need a boot disk?

    • A boot disk is a floppy disk or CD that contains the OS files needed to boot your computer without using hard drive

    • Most manufacturers include a recovery CD for restoring your system to original setup

    • Windows Startup Disk – it loads OS, and the CD-ROM drivers necessary for your computer to access files on the CD-ROM

    • Antivirus software creates rescue disk with boot info and antivirus software

    Page 197-98


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    Section D

    Chapter

    4

    Data Backup

    Can I store my backups on the Internet?

    • Several web sites offer fee-based backup storage space

    • When needed, you simply download backup files from the Web onto your hard disk

      • Definitely offsite storage

      • But what if they go out of business???

    Page 198


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    Section D

    Chapter

    4

    Data Backup

    Do floppy disks and Zip disks play any role in backups?

    • Floppy disks are inexpensive, contain 1.44 MB space, and are good for several documents

    • Zip disk’s 100 MB and 250 MB capacity is sufficient for documents and digital graphics

    Page 198-199


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    Section D

    Chapter

    4

    Data Backup

    What about writable CDs and DVDs?

    • Writable optical technologies provide good storage capacity and blank disks are fairly inexpensive

    Page 199


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    Section D

    Chapter

    4

    Data Backup

    How about a second hard disk drive?

    • Good backup option

    • Disadvantage: susceptible to same dangers of first drive

      • Fire, theft, etc.

    Page 199


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    Section D

    Chapter

    4

    Data Backup

    How do I choose a backup device? What about flash drives??? 128 MB

    Page 199


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    Section D

    Chapter

    4

    Data Backup

    Backup Software: Do I need special software to make a backup?

    • Software depends on your backup plan

      • Can use your file management utility to do simple file copying; backup software are available

    Page 200


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    Section D

    Chapter

    4

    Data Backup

    What’s the easiest way to make a copy of a floppy disk?

    • Many personal computer OSs provide a Copy Disk Utility

    • Makes copies of floppy disks only

    Page 200


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    Section D

    Chapter

    4

    Data Backup

    What’s the easiest way to make a copy of a floppy disk?

    Page 200


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