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EDU3130 Simple Graphic Manipulations I Rosanna Chan Multimedia Elements Multimedia elements include: Digital Video Digital Audio Text abvdefghij Klmnopqrst uvwxyz Multimedia Graphics Animation Multimedia Elements Graphics

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Edu3130 simple graphic manipulations i l.jpg

EDU3130Simple Graphic Manipulations I

Rosanna Chan


Multimedia elements l.jpg
Multimedia Elements

  • Multimedia elements include:

Digital

Video

Digital

Audio

Text

abvdefghij

Klmnopqrst

uvwxyz

Multimedia

Graphics

Animation

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Multimedia elements graphics l.jpg
Multimedia ElementsGraphics

  • Graphics is a digital representation of non-text information such as a drawing, chart, or photograph.

  • It is also called a digital picture or image, and contains no movement or animation

  • 3 fundamental characteristics of color

    • Hue (色調)

      • Related to the wavelength of light

    • Lightness (亮度)

      • Related to the amplitude of light

    • Saturation (彩度)

      • Related to the purity of light

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Multimedia ElementsGraphics

Pixel

  • A pixel is the smallest unit of programmable color on a computer display or in a computer image

  • Every computer graphic is made up of a grid of pixels

  • There are two types of graphics

    • Bitmap graphics

    • Vector graphics

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Multimedia ElementsGraphics

Bitmap Graphics

  • Bitmap is a representation of a graphics image

  • Consists of rows and columns of dots

  • The value of each dot (whether it is filled in or not) is stored in one or more bits of data

  • Simple monochrome images use one bit to represent each dot

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Multimedia ElementsGraphics

Bitmap Graphics

  • The more bits used to represent a dot, the more colors and shades of gray that can be represented:

1-bit image,

2 color: black or white

8-bit image, 256 colors (28=256)

24-bit image, 16777216 colors (true color)

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Multimedia ElementsGraphics

Resolution

  • Determines how sharply the image is represented

  • Expressed in dot per inch (dpi), or simply by the number of rows and columns, such as 640 by 480

  • Bitmap graphics suffer distortion in image quality when being scaled up, this does not happen in case of vector graphics

Vector graphic

Bitmap graphic

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Multimedia ElementsGraphics

Vector Graphics

  • Vector graphics are based on mathematical formulas that represent curves and lines

  • Very smooth looking and can easily be resized without loss of image quality

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Multimedia ElementsGraphics

Formats

  • A format is a standard specifying how the data is arranged

  • For bitmap graphics

    • BMP

    • GIF

    • JPEG

  • For vector graphics

    • EPS

    • WMF

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Multimedia ElementsGraphics

Formats

  • BMP (.bmp)

    • Microsoft's native graphic file format

  • GIF (Graphic Image Format) (.gif)

    • Only supports 256 colors; therefore the file sizes can be kept small. GIF works best when the number of colors within an image is small

  • JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) (.jpg)

    • Supports millions and allows for graphic compression. Most people use JPEG for Web graphics that contain a multitude of colors and gradations - like photographic images

  • EPS (Encapsulated Postscript) (.eps)

    • For image attached within a PostScript language document

  • WMF (Windows Metafile Format) (.wmf)

    • For exchanging graphics between Microsoft applications such as clipart in Microsoft Office

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Multimedia ElementsGraphics

Vector Graphics

  • An example of vector graphic is the clipart in MS PowerPoint

  • When you enlarge a clipart image, it will not distort

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Multimedia ElementsGraphics

GIF versus JPEG

  • When the number of color of an image is large, JPEG performs better

JPEG format, 6k bytes

GIF format, 13.5k bytes

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Multimedia ElementsGraphics

GIF versus JPEG

  • When the number of color of an image is small, GIF performs better

JPEG, 5.4 bytes

GIF, 1.5k bytes

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Multimedia ElementsComputer-based Animation

  • Literally, “To animate something” means “to bring it to life”

  • An animation covers all changes that have a visual effect (e.g. position, color)

  • Displaying a series of still graphics creates an animation, which is cause by the illusion of motion

    Techniques Used

  • Input Process

    • Drawings must be digitized (e.g. scanned) to create key frames, where the entities being animated are at extreme or characteristic positions.

    • The drawing may need to be carefully post-processed (e.g. filtering) in order to clean up any glitches arises from the input process

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Multimedia ElementsComputer-based Animation

Techniques Used

  • In-between Process

    • Intermediate frames are insert between key frames

    • Interpolation methods is used

      • The computer obtain only the beginning and end positions, and fill-in the intermediate positions

    • Color changes is achieved by the Color-Look-Up Table (CLUT) of the graphic memory

Frames Interpolation

CLUT

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Multimedia ElementsComputer-based Animation

Methods of Creating Animation

  • Digital animation is based on the flipbook approach – a sequence of images is compressed and then played back to convey a sense of motion

  • The playback rate is the number of images displayed per second when the animation is being viewed

    • To effectively create the illusion of motion, the playback rate of animation must be at least 24 frames per second

  • An image is said to Flicker when the illusion of motion fails and the animation appears as a rapid sequence of still images instead of a fluid object in motion

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Multimedia ElementsComputer-based Animation

Frame-Based Animation

  • Also called cell animation

  • Key frames that describe key events in the timeline of the animation are created on cells or frames

  • Tweening (the process of filling in the frames between the key frames) is used to make the animation appear smooth

  • Morphing is a special technique that uses frames to create the illusion of one object changing into another (also called shape-tweening)

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Multimedia ElementsComputer-based Animation

Path-Based Animation

  • Also called vector animation

  • Creates animated objects by following an object’s transition over a line or vector

  • The artist creates only one drawing and a path, then the computer manipulates this object by drawing the frames as the object travels over the path

  • Computational animation allows an object to be moved across a screen by varying its x and y coordinates

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Multimedia ElementsComputer-based Animation

Script-Based Animation

  • Script-based animation is created using programming languages

  • LINGO

    • The programming language included in Macromedia Director

    • Is an object-oriented scripting language that extends Director’s build-in capability

  • JAVA

    • Java applets can be used to create advanced animated objects

    • Java enable computational animation: it can react to external input

    • Examples: http://fractal.leet.net.au/page.php?page=funkyapplets

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Multimedia ElementsComputer-based Animation

Animated GIFs

  • Animated GIFs are a special kind of GIF file known as GIF89a

  • An animated GIF file stores multiple images as separate blocks within a single GIF file

  • When being viewed on the Web, the multiple images are streamed (played back one at a time)

  • Streaming: the viewer does not have to wait for the entire GIF to be downloaded before it begins running on a Web page

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