Internet2 Architecture
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Internet2 Architecture (GigaPoP) Team 4 Claudette Morris Mary Manfredi O. Satty Joshua (Co-project Leader) John Galatti (Co-project Leader) Mauro Cruz Internet2 Architecture (GigaPoP) Acronyms and definitions What is Internet2? Primary goals of Internet2 Key Qualities of Internet2

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Internet2 Architecture


Team 4

Claudette Morris

Mary Manfredi

O. Satty Joshua (Co-project Leader)

John Galatti (Co-project Leader)

Mauro Cruz

Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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Internet2 Architecture (GigaPoP)

  • Acronyms and definitions

  • What is Internet2?

  • Primary goals of Internet2

  • Key Qualities of Internet2

  • How did it originate?

  • Components of Internet2

  • Principles in Internet2 deliberation

  • Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoPs

  • Some Internet2 Applications

  • Advantages of Internet2

  • Internet2 Consortium

  • Conclusions

Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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Acronyms and definitions

  • GigaPoP – gigabit capacity point of presence

  • Abilene – a high speed backbone network for Internet2 developed by UCAID, named after the American West operates at 2.4 Gbps (OC-48)

  • vBNS – very high-speed Backbone Network Services developed by NFS and MCI and interconnects several supercomputer center at 622 Mbps (OC-12)

  • UCAID– University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development.

  • NSF – National Science Foundation

  • Tele-immersion – a video-conferencing and data sharing environment.

  • NGI – Next Generation Internet

  • QoS – Quality of Service

Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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What is Internet2

  • A high-speed network for government, academic and research use administered by UCAID

  • A consortium being led by over 180 United States’ universities working in partnership with industry and government.

  • Accelerating the creation of tomorrow's Internet.

  • Recreating the partnership among academia, industry and government that fostered today´s Internet in its infancy.

Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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The primary goals of Internet2

  • To develop and deploy advanced network applications and technologies

  • To create a leading edge network capability for the national research community

  • To ensure the rapid transfer of new network services and applications to a broader Internet community

  • To foster the growth of digital libraries, tele-immersion and virtual laboratories

  • To provide higher bandwidth; multicasting; and guaranteed delivery and performance

Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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Key Qualities of Internet2

  • Providing data rates in the gigabits

  • Maintaining a flexible infrastructure to work with current requirements

  • Maintaining compatibility with current internet

  • Uses IPv6 and thereby incorporating native multi-casting, high reliability and high capacity

  • Allows high bandwidth applications to coexist with each other simultaneously

  • Provide advanced services through the same high-capacity local connection circuit.

Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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How it Originated – The NC GigaPoP

  • It started with members of the a academic, research, and business community in North Carolina Research Triangle Park (RTP).

  • They worked to create a high-performance regional network as partners in the North Carolina Network Initiative (NCNI).

  • They built a network that served as a PoP to handle multigigabit traffic to be delivered by the next-generation Internet within the sites at NC State, UNC, Duke and MCNC and link with North Carolina Supercomputing Center.

  • The name GigaPoP was derived from this venture – like a great railway junction, a central distribution point for the movement of digital freight.

  • This effort was supported by the California Research and Education Network 2 (Calren2), the Houston Area Computational Science Consortium (HACSC), the Metropolitan Research Network (MREN) serving Chicago area, and the New York State Educational and Research Network (Nysernet).

  • This effort was extended with the help of NFS, NGI and corporations, and in October 1996 Internet2 was formally announced by 34 universities.

Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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Sample NC Universities’ GigaPoPs


Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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Sample NC Universities’ GigaPoPs

  • GigaPoP network consists of an OC-48 SONET ring, a SONET add/drop mux (ADM) connected to an ATM core switches on an OC-12 link, with an OC-3c and DS-3 ATM edge connections, and an IP routers.

  • The North Carolina gigaPoP connects local universities and research centers to the Internet2 backbone network.

  • This high-performance backbone network is built under the U.S. government’s Next Generation Internet Initiative. The gigaPoP accesses to the Abilene network being constructed as part of UCAID for Internet2 project.

  • Access to the Abilene Network will occur through the North Carolina State University campus at Centennial center.

Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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Principles in Internet2 Deliberations

  • Buy rather than build – employ currently available technology.

  • Open rather than closed – rely on open, published protocols and standards.

  • Redundancy rather than reliance – avoid long-term dependence on single network providers, single hardware or software manufacturers or single pathways

  • Basics before complexity – focus on specific need, current or anticipated

  • Production not experimentation – support for the development of advanced applications not an experimentation lab.

  • Services to end users, not among commercial providers.

Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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Components of Internet2

Internet2 has four major technical components:

  • Applications that require Internet2-level services outlined by the Application Working Group (see solid-colored screens)

  • Campus networks connecting gigaPoPs to end users in their labs, classrooms, or offices (see solid clouds)

  • GigaPoPs consolidating and managing traffic from campus networks (Striped clouds)

  • Internet2 interconnections among the gigaPoPs (dotted clouds)

Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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Internet2 Architecture (GigaPoP)

  • Key architectural element is a connectivity cloud based on GigaPoP concept.

  • A single interconnection service among gigaPoPs utilizing NFS-sponsored vBNS.

  • Interconnection that supports differentiated Quality of Service among gigaPoPs.

  • Provides campuses the ability to acquire services from the widest variety of ISPs.

  • Campuses in a geographic region can interconnect at a regional gigaPoP.

  • Each campus can install high-speed circuit to its chosen gigaPoP through which they will gain access to community internet services as well as Internet2 services.

  • GigaPoPs manage connectivity among themselves

Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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Intra-Campus and Campus-to- GigaPoP


Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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GigaPoP Structure & Services

  • A gigaPoP is a regional network interconnect point providing access to the inter-gigaPoP network.

  • A gigaPoP is a secure and environmentally conditioned location that houses a collection of communications equipment and support hardware.

  • Circuits are terminated between gigaPoPs and members networks and from wide area networks.

  • Internet2 Member’s networks are non-transit networks.

  • GigaPoP’s key function is the exchange of Internet2 traffic with specified bandwidth and QoS attributes.

  • A gigaPoP must not route non-Internet2 traffic over Internet2 inter-gigaPoP connections.

Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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GigaPoP Structure & Services

There are two types of gigaPoPs

  • Type 1 gigaPoP serve only Internet2 members.

  • Routes traffic through one or two connections to another gigaPoP.

  • Simple internet routing and firewalling among gigaPoPs

  • Type 2 gigaPoP serves both Internet2 members and other networks which Internet2 members need access

  • Has a rich set of connections to other gigaPoPs and therefore must provide mechanism to route traffic correctly.

Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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Some Internet2 Applications

  • High Performance Networking Applications

    • Geology Explorer – a multi-user educational game that teaches concepts and principles of physical geology.

  • Health Sciences (Medical Informatics) - a broad field of spanning electronic medical records, telemedicine, information retrieval, image processing and analysis, bioinformatics and evaluation methodology.

  • Tele-immersion- the use of computers to track the presence and movement of individuals and images, andprojected in realistic multiple geographically distributed environments.

  • Virtual Laboratory - an Application Environment for computational Science and Engineering.

  • Digital Libraries and Information Access and Distribution

  • LearningWare and the Instructional management System

Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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Internet2’s ATM/IP Switching Element

Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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Internet2’s ATM/IP Switching Element

  • External connections to gigaPoP ATM Switching element may be direct SONET circuits from campus ATM Switches or a full ATM service from commercial carriers.

  • ATM Switching Element multiplexes the link level bandwidth through permanent or switched virtual circuits.

  • Intra/inter-gigaPoP connectivity can be optimized and separate bandwidth allocated to other or special purpose requirements.

  • Primary gigaPoP service is provided by the IP Routing Elements.

  • They are fed directly from external SONET/PPP or high speed synchronous circuits via PVC/SVC links.

  • All QoS support and IP routing decisions are made in the IP forwarding equipment.

  • The IP forwarding equipment makes use of the ATM layer to establish dynamic QoS or SVCs to support differentiated IP service requirements.

Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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Security Concerns for Internet2

The Following are the initial security concerns for Internet2

  • Network System attacks

    – attacks on the network infrastructure itself with intent to degrade

  • Unauthorized use of the network

    – methods and infrastructure for performing authentication and authorization must be secured against attacks

  • Inappropriate use of the network .

Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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Some Internet2 GigaPoP Sites

Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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Advantages of Internet2

  • GigaPoP architecture will enrich teaching, learning, collaboration and research activities within and across colleges and universities.

  • High capacity and selectable QoS for leading-edge research community, national Labs, computational facilities and large data repositories.

  • Selectable QoS and efficient “one-to-many” data transport for distance learning.

  • Provides medical researchers support for remote consultation and diagnoses over a reliable and predictable communication services.

  • Provides physical scientists access to massive and astronomical or geographical datasets.

Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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Some Consortium Members

  • Arizona State University

  • Columbia University

  • Cornell University

  • Duke University

  • North Carolina State University

  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology - MIT

  • Princeton University

  • New Jersey Institute of Technology - NJIT

  • AT&T, 3COM, CISCO, NORTEL, IBM, SUN Microsystems

Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP

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  • Internet2 applications requires next-generation network services on an end-to-end basis.

  • Hence, significant upgrades needed to most campus networks

  • Internet2 members are responsible for bringing their campus networks up to Internet2 standards.

  • Internet2 must encourage the development of advanced real-time multimedia applications.

  • Internet2 is standards-based but pre-competitive production network

  • Use of off-the-shelf technology wherever possible .

  • Costs for inter-gigaPoP connectivity are not yet known

  • Other gigaPoP costs will vary with circumstances and services offered.

Internet2 Architecture - GigaPoP