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CS5: Computer Graphics Yann Morvan Computer Science morvany@cs.tcd.ie Assessment Exam 80% Two projects 2D Graphics8% 3D Graphics12% Practicals every two weeks* OpenGL Graphics Techniques Implementation of selected topics What is Computer Graphics ? Computer Graphics

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CS5: Computer Graphics

Yann Morvan

Computer Science

morvany@cs.tcd.ie


Assessment

  • Exam 80%

  • Two projects

    • 2D Graphics8%

    • 3D Graphics12%

  • Practicals every two weeks*

    • OpenGL

    • Graphics Techniques

    • Implementation of selected topics


What is Computer Graphics ?


Computer Graphics

  • “Computer Graphics is concerned with producing images (or animations) using a computer.”

rendering

modeling

DISPLAY

WORLD

MODEL


Rendering


Modeling And Rendering

© Walt Disney and TSL


Wireframe Model

Skeletal Model

Muscle Model

© Walt Disney and TSL

Hair

Render and Touch up

Skin


Some History


Spacewars: first computer graphics game (MIT 1961)

Whirlwind: early graphics using VectorScope (1951)

first CAD system (IBM 1959)

SketchPad: first interactive graphics (1961)


Early texture-mapped image (Catmull 1974)

First bump-mapped images (Blinn 1978)

First ray traced image (Whitted 1980)

First distributed ray traced image (Cook 1984)


Westworld (1973)

First production movie to feature computer graphics.

Used in various graphics displays within the Westworld center.


Star Wars (1977)


Tron (1980)

First time computer graphics were used for

live action sequences.


Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, genesis effect (1983)

The Last Starfighter (15 minutes) (1982)


Applications of Computer Graphics


Movies

Fully computer generated animated features


Movies

Special Effects… in Live Action Cinema


Movies

  • “Traditional” Animated Features…

  • Some examples:

  • Automating Keyframing in many Disney-type animations

  • The flocking behaviour of the wilderbeest in Lion King

  • Non photorealistic rendering: 3D effects in Futurama


Behind the scenes on Antz Production

Number of frames in the movie

119,592

Number of times the movie was rendered during production

15 (approx.)

Number of feet of approved animation produced in a week

107 ft.

Total number of hours of rendering per week

275,000 hrs.

Average size of the frame rendered

6 MB

Total number of Silicon Graphics servers used for rendering

270

Number of desktop systems used in production

166

Total Number of processors used for rendering

700

Average amount of memory per processor

256 MB

Time it would have taken to render this movie on 1 processor

54 yrs., 222 days, 15 mins., 36 secs.

Amount of storage required for the movie

3.2 TB

Amount of frames kept online at any given time

75000 frames

Time to re-film out final cut beginning to end

41.5 days (997 hrs.)


User Interfaces

CAVE: Immersive and Interactive 3D enironement

B205 Control Console (1960)

3D Studio MAX


Layout and Design


Scientific Visualization and Analysis


Medicine and Virtual Surgery

The Visible Human project


Room Layout Design and Architectural Simulations


ART AND DESIGN


History and cultutal heritage


CG Applications (1)

  • Art, Entertainment, Publishing

    • Movie Production, Animation and Special Effects

    • Computer Games

    • Browsing the web

    • Slide, Book and Magazine Design

    • Multimedia


CG Applications (2)

  • Computer Graphics and Image Processing

  • Scientific Analysis and Visualization

  • Simulations

  • Computer Aided Design

    • Electrical Circuit Design

    • Architecture


Related Disciplines

Data

Processing

DATA

Computer

Vision

Computer

Graphics

IMAGES

Image

Processing


Interdisciplinary

  • Science

    • Physics: light, color, appearance, behaviour

    • Mathematics: Curves and Surfaces, Geometry and Perspective

  • Engineering

    • Hardware: graphics media and processors, input and output devices

    • Software: graphics libraries, window systems

  • Art, Perception and Esthetics

    • Color, Composition, Lighting, Realism


Graphics and the Computer Engineer

  • Knowledge of the Interdisciplinary Background to Graphics Related Problems

  • Ability to Implement Computer Solutions based on interdisciplinary techniques in computer systems

  • Knowledge of existing hardware and software frameworks for Computer Graphics applications

  • Optimization! Realism/Fidelity vs Speed


Subtopics

  • Modelling

  • 2D Graphics

  • 3D Graphics

  • Image Synthesis

    • Ray-tracing, Radiosity

  • Image Processing

  • Animation

    • Key Frame animation

    • Physically Based Simulation

    • Real-time Interactive Animation


Course Outline (1)

  • Computer Graphics: Problems and Applications

  • Graphics Display Hardware and Input Devices

  • Introduction to Colour Theory

  • Geometric Modelling

  • 2D Co-ordinate Systems and Transformations


Course Outline (2)

  • 3D Co-ordinate Systems and Transformations

  • Projection and Viewing

  • Hidden Surface Removal

  • Illumination and Shading

  • Animation and Interaction

  • Global Illumination

  • Current Issues in Computer Graphics


Recommended Texts

  • Computer Graphics – C Version - Hearn, Baker

  • Computer Graphics using Open GL 2/e – F.S. Hill

  • Introduction to Computer Graphics - Foley, Van Dam, Feiner, Hughes, Phillips

  • Interactive Computer Graphics A Top-down approach with OpenGL – Edward Angel


Useful References

  • OpenGL Programming Guide - M. Woo, J. Neider, and T. Davis

  • OpenGL Reference Manual – OpenGL ARB

  • OpenGL SuperBible – R.S. Wright, Michael Sweet


Image Synthesis Group

Computer graphics research in Trinity College

Graphics & perception

Virtual Dublin

Characters & Crowds

Image Synthesis

Adaptive Simulation

Virtual Reality


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