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Crime and Violence – The Jamaican Perspective PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Crime and Violence – The Jamaican Perspective Presented by : Sonia Jackson Director General Statistical Institute of Jamaica Structure of Presentation Introduction Classification of crimes committed Crime Statistics

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Crime and Violence – The Jamaican Perspective

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Crime and violence the jamaican perspective l.jpg

Crime and Violence – The Jamaican Perspective

Presented by:

Sonia Jackson

Director General

Statistical Institute of Jamaica

STATISTICAL INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA


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Structure of Presentation

  • Introduction

  • Classification of crimes committed

  • Crime Statistics

  • The link between crime and other social indicators – occupation and education

  • Crime & its impact on the social & economic well-being of the country

  • Some issues related to data on crime

  • Recommendations

STATISTICAL INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA


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Introduction

  • Definitions from the Concise Oxford :

    • Criminal is “a person who has committed a crime”

    • Crime is “an offence punishable by law”

  • The study of crime must take account of the broad definition and not only offences against the person

  • Offences against the Person are critical but in some instances these crimes are linked to other breaches of the law

  • The correlation between different types of crimes committed must also be analysed

  • The objectives of the analysis of crime data are to provide information that will assist in defining and implementing strategies that will lead to behaviour modification.

  • STATISTICAL INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA


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    Miscellaneous Crimes 2006 & 2007- Reported & Cleared

    STATISTICAL INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA


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    Motor Vehicle Fatalities 2007 - by Parish

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    Persons Deported to Jamaica 2007 - by Offence & Country

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    Admissions to Adult Correctional Institutions 2006

    - by Occupation & Sex

    STATISTICAL INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA


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    Admissions to Adult Correctional Institutions 2006

    - by Education & Sex

    STATISTICAL INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA


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    Some Related Factors –Home & Community

    • There is the need to understand the contributory factors that lead to criminal and other violent behavioural practices:

      • The role and impact of the family and the wider community need to be understood;

      • The dominance of young males as the victims and the perpetrators of major crimes;

      • The correlation between crime and the other social indicators , e.g. education, skills level, health, etc;

      • Motor vehicle accidents and the fatalities associated therewith are affecting the same population age group – young males.

    STATISTICAL INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA


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    Crime Statistics – Source and Issues

    • Crime Statistics are gathered from the administrative records of the Police system island wide & published by thePolice Statistics Unit:

      • The issue of coverage needs to be addressed – not all crimes are reported, particularly those that occur within the home, and when reported the victim and/or the witness is not always forthcoming;

      • There are no standards for the collection and retrieval of crime the data;

      • The system is largely manual – efforts are being made to address this problem .

    STATISTICAL INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA


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    The Justice System

    • The inadequacy of the justice system to cope with the increasing number of cases has resulted in:

      • Cases are not being disposed of in a timely manner and there is a growing backlog;

      • Because of the delays in trial, some persons are detained for inordinately long periods;

      • Citizens loose confidence in the system and are inclined to apply “vigilante justice” in some instances – e.g. praedial larceny & carnal abuse;

      • Witnesses are not always willing to come forward to give evidence & some have no confidence in the witness protection system – the trial of some cases are compromised.

    STATISTICAL INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA


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    The Penal System

    • The Correctional Institutions are all overcrowded;

    • The buildings and the operating systems are old and in need of refurbishing;

    • The rehabilitation programmes are being upgraded to offer life skills and earning skills.

    STATISTICAL INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA


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    Impact of Crime & Violence

    Sections of downtown Kingston are feared and there has been steady migration out of these areas;

    The infrastructure in downtown Kingston is underutilised;

    Growth of informal land settlements, mainly the urban centres, with high population densities provide a heaven for criminal activities and make policing difficult;

    In violence prone communities economic and social activities have been considerably reduced, schools are under-populated and when there is a “flare-up” of violence businesses and schools close;

    Persons who reside in these communities do not provide their correct addresses when seeking jobs – the fear of being discriminated against in the selection process;

    The social fibre of the families are being affected as the perpetrators and the victims of crime are mainly young males;

    Growth in private security companies and “gated” communities;

    Greater difficulty in data collection – concerns for safety of interviewers and the challenge of gaining access to gated communities.

    STATISTICAL INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA


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    Recommendations – Data collection

    • Guidelines need to be provided for the collection and analysis of data on crime using the administrative data sets;

    • The data collection process within the various systems must be harmonised to link the data on the individual from arrest through conviction and punishment, custodial and non-custodial;

    • The classification of crimes need to standardised at the international level;

    • Validation of crime statistics is necessary and can be achieved through victimisation surveys – guidelines need to established

    • The data collection process must ensure that the victims, the witnesses of crime and the communities and families from which they come do not feel that they are on trial;

    • The data collection procedure needs to be standardised and modernised;

    • The impact of “deportees” with criminal records need to be monitored – this may require new legislation as these persons have not committed a crime in the country to which they have been deported.

    STATISTICAL INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA


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    Recommendations – other areas

    • The Judiciary –

      • The system needs to be strengthened so that cases can be heard and resolved in shorter periods;

      • The laws need to be reviewed – particularly in relation to application of sentences where there is conviction.

    • The Penal System –

      • The system needs to be modernised and the over crowding reduced.

    • The Society–

      • The social and cultural factors that contribute to aggression, violence and criminal tendencies within the society have to be studied;

      • Gender issues must be studied and understood; gender inequalities addressed.

      • The strategies used by the Police and the Military in crime management & apprehension need to be reformed.

    STATISTICAL INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA


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    Recommendations – other areas

    • Legislative –

      • Legislative reform in respect to offences against the person need to be gender neutral to address the growing problem being experienced by males – e.g. issues of rape, carnal abuse and indecent assault;

      • There is the need for legislation that will allow for monitoring, over a specific period of time, of “deportees” with criminal records;

    • The International Community is required to -

      • Develop a standard classification for crime statistics;

      • Develop and provide guidelines for the collection and analysis of crime statistics;

      • Develop and provide guidelines for the conduct and analysis of victimisation surveys;

      • Set targets and direct strategies for intervention at the national level in the same way that the MDGs were developed to address poverty reduction.

    STATISTICAL INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA


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    References:

    • Economic and Social Survey Jamaica 2007- a publication of the Planning Institute of Jamaica

    • The website of the Correctional Services Department – for custodial data http://www.dcsj.net/p/stats2006custodial.xls

    STATISTICAL INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA


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