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CLEAN AND GREEN FUELS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. Narsimha Reddy Kandadi Department of Chemical Engineering Monash University. OUTLINE. General issues related to sustainable energy Environmental and pollution problems with current transportation fuels

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Clean and green fuels for sustainable development l.jpg

CLEAN AND GREEN FUELS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Narsimha Reddy Kandadi

Department of Chemical Engineering

Monash University


Outline l.jpg
OUTLINE

  • General issues related to sustainable energy

  • Environmental and pollution problems with current transportation fuels

  • Reformulation of transportation fuels

  • Clean fuel production

  • GTL Fuels and their advantageous characteristics

  • Alternative Gaseous and liquid fuels

  • Synthesis gas/natural gas refinery

  • Fuel issues for fuel cells

  • Issues related to Hydrogen Storage

  • Conclusions



Vehicular pollution l.jpg
VEHICULAR POLLUTION

Pollution from Automotive Vehicles are responsible for

  • ~One-third of all AIR POLLUTION

  • ~50% of SMOG forming VOCs & NOx

  • >50% of Hazardous Air Pollutants

  • 90% of CO found in urban air

    20 pounds of CO2 emitted every gallon of gasoline burning by the vehicle

    Low emissions and good fuel economy are both important for the environment


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IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION ON HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT

  • WHO Report(1999) on Health costs due to traffic-related pollution in Europe

  • Every year air pollution from cars causes

    • 300, 000 extra cases of Bronchitis in Children

    • 15, 000 Hospital Admissions for Heart Disease

    • 395, 000 Asthma attacks in Adults and

    • 162, 000 Asthma attacks in Children in each year

  • Car pollution kills more people than car accidents

  • Long-term exposure in adults over 30 years age can cause extra 21,000 premature deaths from Respiratory or Heart diseases




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ADVANTAGEOUS OXYGENATES AD

The potential benefits of adding oxygenates to gasoline are

  • Less CO emissions

  • Reduced unburned hydrocarbon emissions

  • Decrease in Ozone content in the lower atmospheres of highly polluted areas

  • Environment friendly replacement for TEL and aromatics for Octane requirements for good engine performance

  • FCC volatile olefins with high photochemical reactivity can be converted to ethers which decreases volatility and increases octane content with oxygen



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VEHICLES WITH NATURAL GAS BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYST

  • ~ 800,000 - 1.000,000 vehicles in the world running on natural gas

    • Russia

    • Italy

    • South America

    • Australia and

    • North America

  • The market position: capable for fuelling vehicles and refuelling stations at an acceptable level of development

  • The fuel infrastructure may allow the easy transition to hydrogen supply


  • Synthesis gas refinery clean and alternative molecular fuels l.jpg
    SYNTHESIS GAS REFINERY BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYSTClean and Alternative Molecular Fuels


    Emissions performance of gtl f t diesel fuels l.jpg
    EMISSIONS PERFORMANCE OF GTL(F-T) DIESEL FUELS BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYST

    GTL Fuels are far superior to Petroleum derived Diesel

    GTL fuel characteristics

    • Cetane - 75

    • Sulphur - ~0

    • Aromatics - ~0


    Hydrogen ideal environment friendly fuel l.jpg
    HYDROGEN – IDEAL ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY FUEL BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYST

    • Decarbonise the fuel sphere

    • Can be realized the zero emission transportation

    • Can be used in both conventional ICE and Fuel Cells with water as effluent

    • Unique combustion characteristics lean burning with air without NOx –SMOG precursor

    • Avoids the global climate changes as it can’t produce CO2

    • No particulates and unburnt Hydrocarbons


    Dme as an alternative fuel l.jpg
    DME AS AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYST

    • Stationary Applications

      • Power Plants

      • Diesel Gensets

      • Ceramic and Glass Industry

    • Transportation

      • Diesel Engines

      • CNG

    • Fuel for Fuel Cells


    Dme environmental issues l.jpg
    DME ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYST

    PURE DME DOES NOT POSE ANY ENVIORNMENTAL ISSUE DUE TO

    • PHYSICALLY LIKE LPG. LPG INDUSTRY HAS AN OUTSTANDING SAFETY RECORD

    • 150 000 T/A OF DME USE AS AN AEROSOL PROPELLANT IS BECAUSE OF ITS ENVIORNMENTALLY BEGING CHARACTERSTICS I.e.

      • NOT HARMFUL TO OZONE LAYER

      • READILY DEGRADES IN THE TROPOSPHERE TO CO2 AND H2O

      • NON TOXIC

      • NON CARCINOGENIC

      • NON TETRAGEN

      • NON TERATOGEN

      • NON MUTAGEN

      • NON CORROSIVE

    • DISPLAYS A VISIBLE FLAME OVERWIDE RANGE OF AIR FUEL RATIO

    • HEAVIER THAN AIR HENCE NEEDS SAME HANDLING AND SAFETY CARE AS PROPANE AND LPG



    Advantages of fuel cells over other power sources l.jpg
    ADVANTAGES OF FUEL CELLS OVER OTHER POWER SOURCES BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYST

    • Environmentally friendly

    • High power density

    • High energy conversion efficiency

    • Operation at low temperatures and pressures

    • Zero to very low emissions dependent on fuel

    • Site flexibility

    • Fuel flexibility

    • Quiet operation

    • Cogeneration capability

    • Responsiveness to load variations

      SUITABLE FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS, INCLUDING AUTOMOTIVE


    Automotive fuel cell drivers l.jpg
    AUTOMOTIVE FUEL CELL DRIVERS BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYST

    • Kyoto agreement requires CO2 reduction

    • Europe will reduce car CO2 emissions

    • Aggressive fuel/CO2 taxes

    • California Zero Emission Vehicle by 2003

      Public policy will help build a market for Fuel Cell Vehicles




    Fuels issues for fuel cells in transportation sector l.jpg
    FUELS BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYSTISSUES FOR FUEL CELLS IN TRANSPORTATION SECTOR


    Projected fc vehicle performance light weight hybrid vehicle l.jpg
    PROJECTED BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYSTFC VEHICLE PERFORMANCE: LIGHT WEIGHT HYBRID VEHICLE


    Fuels and processing steps in fuel processor for fuel cells l.jpg
    FUELS AND PROCESSING STEPS IN FUEL PROCESSOR FOR FUEL CELLS BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYST

    Natural Gas

    Gasoline

    Alcohol

    + O2 + H2O

    H2

    FUEL PROCESSOR

    Fuel cell

    Power

    Syngas generation

    Fuel evaporation

    Water-gas shift

    CO clean-up

    60 - 200°C

    R-OH (l)  R-OH (g)

    HC (l)  HC (g)

    Preferential Oxidation

    Membranes

    ambient - 70°C

    CO + O2 CO2

    Partial Oxidation

    Steam Reforming

    Autothermal Reforming

    750 - 1000°C

    HC + H2O + O2

    CO, H2, CO2, H2O

    High Temperature

    Medium Temperature

    Low Temperature

    200 - 550°C

    CO + H2O  CO2 + H2


    Fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles fuel report by california energy commission july 99 l.jpg
    FUELS FOR FUEL CELL POWERED VEHICLES BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYST[Fuel Report by California Energy commission, July’99]


    Promising fuel properties of methanol for pem fuel cells l.jpg
    PROMISING FUEL PROPERTIES OF METHANOL FOR PEM FUEL CELLS BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYST

    • Liquid having high energy density at ambient temperature and pressure,

    • High energy storage capacity

    • Simple molecule

    • Sulfur free

    • Fairly easy to reform into hydrogen rich gas – lower reforming temperature

    • High hydrogen to CO2 ratio in comparison with other processing options

    • Low carbon monoxide yield(CO)


    Monash s fuel processor and fuel cell systems l.jpg
    MONASH’S FUEL PROCESSOR AND FUEL CELL SYSTEMS BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYST

    The fuel processor with C1 Fuels and H2 storage for both PEMFC & AFC with major Australian Fuels-syngas, NG. LPG etc.

    • COMPACT FUEL REFORMER WITHOUT THE CO CLEANUP STEP

    • MeOH/DME/Methyl formate reforming

    • CARBON DIOXIDE FREE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    • Catalytic Decomposition of NG & LPG

      CH4 = C + 2H2DH = + 75.6Kj/mol

      C2H6 = 2C+ 3 H2DH = + 83.7Kj/mol

      C3H8 = 3C + 4 H2+DH = + 103.8Kj/mol

      nC4H10 = 4C + 5 H2+DH = + 125.5Kj/mol

    • Catalytic Reforming of NG & LPG to Aromatics and H2

      6CH4 = C6H6 + 9H2

      3C2H6 = C6H6+ 6 H2

      C3H8 = C6H6 + 5 H2

      III. NOVEL MATERIALS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    • Hybrid Novel Carbon Materials with Metal Hydrides


    On board hydrogen storage l.jpg
    ON-BOARD HYDROGEN STORAGE BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYST

    The challenges of fuelling for fuel cell vehicles

    • The biggest issue is how to provide fuel

    • The space needed to store the fuel on board the vehicle

    • Efficient ways for processing fossil fuels on board must be developed

    • Even though reforming is a gentler process than combustion, it still introduces trace emissions, which will dragged down overall efficiency

      Efficiency and Technical difficulty – Direct hydrogen vehicles are themost efficient, followed by on-board processor of methanol and then gasoline


    Hydrogen infr a structure and storage l.jpg
    HYDROGEN INFR BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYSTASTRUCTURE AND STORAGE


    Hydrogen production and dispensing targets and status l.jpg

    ON – BOARD BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYST

    OFF-BOARD

    HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND DISPENSINGTARGETS AND STATUS


    Conclusions l.jpg
    CONCLUSIONS BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYST

    • Utility Sustainable energy concepts are critical for global climate change and resource diversification

    • Clean as well as molecular fuels are going to play prominent role to transition to decarbonisation of fuels

    • Synthesis gas will be the feedstock for both clean as well as molecular fuels for both Combustion engines and Fuel Cells

    • C1 oxygenates such as MeOH, DME, Methyl formate can be efficient conventional fuels and source for low temperature hydrogen production by steam reforming

    • CO2 free H2 production fro low temperature fuel cells from NG and lower hydrocarbons have both economic and technical advantages

    • New adsorbents for H2 storage can realize the zero emission concepts


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