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Visit by Government Officials from Mozambique COLUMBIA RIVER SYSTEM BRIEFING IV U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Northwestern Division PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Visit by Government Officials from Mozambique COLUMBIA RIVER SYSTEM BRIEFING IV U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Northwestern Division North Pacific Water Management Portland, Oregon 15-16 October 2001. RESERVOIR CONTROL CENTER. HISTORIC PUBLICATIONS & EVENTS. House Document 103, 1932

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Visit by Government Officials from Mozambique

COLUMBIA RIVER SYSTEM BRIEFING IV

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Northwestern Division

North Pacific Water Management

Portland, Oregon

15-16 October 2001


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RESERVOIR

CONTROL

CENTER


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HISTORIC PUBLICATIONS & EVENTS

  • House Document 103, 1932

  • 1948 Flood (~ 20 dead, $100 million damages, thousands homeless)

  • Flood Control Act of 1950, Public Law 516

  • Columbia River Treaty, signed January 17, 1961

  • CRT-63, June 1991. Reduces flood control draft in moderate years

  • Feb. 1997, Prelim. study to reduce flood control draft on all projects (increases historic average regulated flow to 550,000)


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OVERVIEW

  • Corps has Congressional Authority to Operate the Columbia as a Flood Control System to protect the Lower Columbia (rm 0-140) and Portland

  • Design Flood is 1894

  • Local Flood Control is a By-Product of System Flood Control

  • System Level of Protection Greater than 300-year as appropriate


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RESERVOIR DRAFT REQUIREMENTS

  • Varies Depending on Project

  • Based on Seasonal Volume Forecast

  • Storage Reservation Diagram (SRD) Converts Volume Forecast to Draft Requirement

  • SRDs in Place for: Mica, Arrow, Libby, Duncan, Hungry Horse, Grand Coulee, Dworshak, Brownlee.


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OPERATING CONCEPTS

  • All Draft to be Completed by 30 April

  • System Flood Control Takes Precedence Over Local Flood Control

  • Initial Controlled Flow (ICF) at The Dalles Determined

  • Every Effort Made to Regulate at or Below the ICF

    • Underforecasted snowpack

    • Excessive rainfall during refill period

  • Refill Targets Change as a Function of the NWS’s Real-Time Forecasts

  • Grand Coulee is Regulated for The Dalles Only

  • “Zero Damage” is at 450,000 cfs


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    • THE FLOOD OF 1996- Events

    • Winter 1995-1996 one of the wettest of record

    • Heavy Rains in Nov-January rapidly filled reservoirs earlier than normal

    • January: Heavy snow over Cascades due to northerly Arctic air + subtropical moisture

    • Jan-Feb.: very cold temperatures froze the saturated grounds.

    • Feb. 5: intense surges of subtropical moisture cause rapid snowmelt. Also, heavy precipitation (28” in 4 days). Mckenzie River flow jumped from 4,000 cfs to 20,000 cfs in 1 day.

    • 100-yr flood event. Recession started 10 February.


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    • The Flood of Feb. '96 -- Operations

    • $3.2 billion in flood damage avoided from Portland to Astoria.

    • Releases reduced from US Federal and non-Federal dams and Canadian storage.

    • Grand Coulee power reduced from 4300 to 1300 Mw. In less than 6 hours, $5 million spent on replacement power (and $5 million in foregone sales).

    • Willamette Valley dams control 27% of the water in their Basin, and reduced river levels: 7.5’ in Salem and 9’ in Eugene.

    • Portland river crested 2” below seawall. Escaped up to $1.1 billion in estimated damages in Portland alone.

    • Flood control remains a central regional priority.


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    US Army Corps

    of Engineers


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    US Army Corps

    of Engineers

    North Pacific Division

    1996 Northwest Winter Flood


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    Water Level

    without Dams

    7 feet 1996

    4.5feet 1964

    (from water level)


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    Water Level

    without

    Corps Dams

    7 feet 1996

    5.5 feet 1964


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    • 1996 Flood – Cleanup

    • Navigation Locks seriously damaged

    • Serious shoal movement affecting Columbia shipping channels

    • Damages to dikes, levees, and bank protection

    • Log jams and debris affected recreation opportunities

    • Post-flood community workshops to share lessons learned and re-affirm roles and responsibilities of key response agencies. Teach flood fight techniques, safety and sand-bagging.

    • Oregonian, state’s largest newspaper, credited the Corps for saving downtown Portland.


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    • 1997 – Expected Runoff

    • Anticipated Flow

      • February Final Forecasts, for the April – August period:Final Grand Coulee 77MAF126% of Normal

        • Lower Granite 36MAF158% of Normal

        • The Dalles125MAF135% of Normal

      • Based on February Final Forecast, Possible Range of Peak Discharge:

        Low Flow,kcfsHigh Flow, kcfs

        • Lower Granite220320

        • The Dalles475555


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    • 1997 – Observed Runoff

    • Actual Unregulated Runoff

      • Actual April – August runoff:

        Grand Coulee 83.3 MAF137% of Normal

        • Lower Granite 35.3 MAF153% of Normal

        • The Dalles133 MAF143% of Normal

      • Peak Discharges:

        Unregulated,kcfsRegulated, kcfs

        • Lower Granite358225

        • The Dalles896571

    • 1997 was the largest runoff since 1894.

      • The Columbia River at Vancouver, Washington was above flood stage most of May and June.

      • Over $4.2 billion in damages prevented during the spring snowmelt runoff.

      • Peak observed stage at Vancouver, Washington was 19 feet. The unregulated peak stage would have been 28.4 feet. Flood stage is 16 feet, Major flood stage is 26 feet.


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    • 1997 Contingencies

    • Special briefings for stakeholders and customers by Corps Commanders and staff

      • Irrigators around reservoirs

      • Other Agencies’ Regional Executives

    • Press Releases were ongoing

    • Detailed, adaptive Planning was ongoing

    • Regional stakeholders received continuous coordination


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