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Brain Description. Brain weighs 3 to 3.5 poundsMajor portions -- brainstem, cerebrum, and cerebellumcerebrum is 83% of brain volume___________________ contains 50% of the neurons. Brain. Longitudinal fissure separates 2 cerebral hemispheres.. Meninges. Dura materouter periosteal layerinner meningeal layerdural venous sinusesdural septafalx cerebri, falx cerebelli and tentorium cerebellidural hemorrhages Arachnoid materPia mater .

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1. Brain Meninges, ventricles, cerebrospinal fluid & blood supply Hindbrain and midbrain Forebrain Limbic system

3. Brain Longitudinal fissure separates 2 cerebral hemispheres.

4. Meninges Dura mater outer periosteal layer inner meningeal layer dural venous sinuses dural septa falx cerebri, falx cerebelli and tentorium cerebelli dural hemorrhages Arachnoid mater Pia mater

5. Cranial Meninges

6. Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid Internal chambers within the CNS lateral ventricles third ventricle cerebral aqueduct fourth ventricle central canal of spinal cord Lined with ependymal cells and contains ______

7. Brain Ventricles

8. Cerebrospinal Fluid Clear liquid fills ventricles and canals & bathes its external surface ________________________ Brain produces & absorbs about 500 ml/day filtration of blood through choroid plexus has more Na+ & Cl- but less K+,Ca+2, and proteins than plasma Functions (3) Buoyancy, protection, and chemical stability Escapes from 4th ventricle to subarachnoid space Drains from _________________________ into venous sinus

9. Flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid

10. Blood-Brain and Blood-CSF Barriers BBB - endothelium & perivascular astrocyte feet permeable to lipid-soluble materials (alcohol, O2, CO2, caffeine, nicotine and anesthetics) administer drugs through nasal sprays 4 Breeches Hypothalamus, Post. pituitary, Pineal, & Choroid plexus monitoring of glucose, pH, osmolarity & other variations may allow route for HIV virus to invade the brain Blood-CSF barrier - choroid plexus is ependymal cells joined by _________________________

11. Choroid Plexus

12. Medulla Oblongata 3 cm long Ascending & descending tracts CN nuclei (VIII, IX, X, XI, XII) Nuclei for somatic and visceral sensory; somatic cerebellar relay Cardiac, vasomotor, & respiratory centers Reflex centers for coughing, sneezing, gagging, swallowing, vomiting, salivation, sweating, and movements of the tongue and head

13. Medulla and Pons

14. Pons Bulge in the brainstem, rostral to the medulla Ascending sensory tracts Descending motor tracts Pathways in & out of cerebellum - peduncles Nuclei concerned with sleep, hearing, balance, taste, eye movements, facial expression, facial sensation, respiration, swallowing, bladder control & posture cranial nerves V, VI, VII, and VIII

15. Cerebellum Connected to brainstem by cerebellar peduncles White matter _____________________ Folia? Sits atop the 4th ventricle

16. Input to Cerebellum

17. Output from Cerebellum Smoothes muscle contractions, maintains muscle tone & posture, coordinates motions of different joints, aids in learning motor skills & coordinates eye movements

18. ____________________ Mes. aqueduct CN III and IV eye movement Cerebral peduncles hold corticospinal tract Tegmentum connects to cerebellum & helps control fine movements through red nucleus Substantia nigra sends inhibitory signals to basal nuclei & thalamus Midbrain

19. Superior & Inferior Colliculus Tectum (4 nuclei) called corpora quadrigemina superior colliculus inferior colliculus

20. Reticular Formation Clusters of gray matter scattered throughout pons, midbrain & medulla Regulate balance & posture relaying information from eyes & ears to cerebellum gaze centers allow you to track moving object Includes cardiac & vasomotor centers Analgesic pathways Regulates sleep, conscious attention, fatigue

21. Thalamus Oval mass of gray matter in center of ________________ Receives nearly all sensory information on its way to cerebral cortex integrate & directs information to appropriate areas Interconnected to limbic system so involved in emotional & memory functions

22. Walls & floor of 3rd ventricle Functions hormone secretion & pituitary autonomic NS control thermoregulation food & water intake sleep & circadian rhythms memory (mammillary bodies) emotional behavior Hypothalamus

23. Epithalamus (Pineal Gland)

24. Cerebrum -- Gross Anatomy Cerebral cortex is 3mm layer of gray matter with extensive folds to increase surface area ---- divided into lobes

25. Frontal contains voluntary motor functions and areas for planning, mood, smell and social judgement Parietal contains areas for sensory reception & integration of sensory information Occipital is visual center of brain Temporal contains areas for hearing, smell, learning, memory, emotional behavior Insula produces emotionally-relevant context for sensory info; conscious desires & cravings Functions of Cerebrum Lobes

26. Tracts of Cerebral White Matter

27. Basal Nuclei Masses of gray matter deep to cerebral cortex Receive input from substantia nigra & motor cortex & send signals back to these regions Involved in motor control & inhibition of tremors

28. Limbic System Loop of cortical structures surrounding deep brain amygdala, hippocampus, fornix & cingulate gyrus Amydala important in ________________ and ____________________________ in memory

29. Somesthetic Sensation Somatosensory area is postcentral gyrus

30. Sensory Homunculus Demonstrates that the area of the cortex dedicated to the sensations of various body parts is proportional to how sensitive that part of the body is.

31. Sensory Association Areas Association areas interpret sensory information Somesthetic association area position of limbs, location of touch or pain, and shape, weight & texture of an object Visual association area identify the things we see Auditory association area remember the name of a piece of music or identify a person by his voice

32. Motor Control Intention to contract a muscle begins in motor association (premotor) area of frontal lobes Precentral gyrus (primary motor area) processes that order by sending signals to the spinal cord upper motor neurons to contralateral muscles Motor homunculus is proportional to number of muscle motor units in a region

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