Chapter 6 – Forging the New Republic Section Notes Video Forging the New Republic Washington Becomes President Challenges of the 1790s Jefferson’s Presidency The War of 1812 Maps Northwest Territory Battles The Louisiana Purchase Lewis and Clark’s Journey to the Pacific
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Chapter 6 – Forging the New Republic
Forging the New Republic
Washington Becomes President
Challenges of the 1790s
The War of 1812
Northwest Territory Battles
The Louisiana Purchase
Lewis and Clark’s Journey to the Pacific
The War of 1812
The Cabinet, 1789 to Today
Hamilton’s Economic Plan
Reactions to the XYZ Affair
The Election of 1800: Power Changes Hands
Causes and Effects of the War of 1812
Visual Summary: Forging the New Republic
The President’s Cabinet
Washington Reviewing the Western Army at Fort Cumberland, Maryland
The Election of 1800
Political Cartoon: Alien and Sedition Acts
The first Congress
Only 10 states had joined the government; presided over by Vice President Adams
Sent proposed amendments to the states (Bill of Rights)
The Judiciary Act of 1789 organized the judicial branch. It had a six-person Supreme Court with one chief justice and five associates.
John Jay named as first chief justice
Most controversial part of Hamilton’s plan was the national bank
Two views of the Constitution:
Strict construction: the government should do only what the Constitution specifically states it can do
Loose construction: the government can take reasonable actions that are not outlined in the Constitution—as long as those actions are not specifically prohibited.
Hamilton pointed to the “necessary and proper” clause of the Constitution when he proposed a national bank.
That was a prime example of loose construction.
Jefferson was only lukewarm to the Constitution in its final form.
He favored a smaller national government.
A strict constructionist, he felt that Hamilton’s interpretation of the “necessary and proper” clause was going beyond the powers that the Constitution specifically allowed.
Jefferson opposed a national bank.
Congress passed the bill, and Washington signed it to charter the first Bank of the United States in February 1791.
In 1790s violence broke out when Native American nations resisted white settlement.
Little Turtle led Miamis, Shawnees, and Delawares against St. Clair’s army and won.
American army returned in force and built forts and brought in supplies.
France had attacked American merchant ships.
French agents (referred to as X, Y, and Z) demanded bribes of the American diplomats who went to France to negotiate an end to the ship seizure.
As a result, Congress:
The XYZ Affair brought a general resentment of foreigners, which led to passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Succeeded in reducing government
Only customs duties and the sale of lands produced revenue for the government.
Reduced the size of the executive department staff
Succeeded in reducing size of military
General Napoleon Bonaparte wanted to build a French empire.
Bonaparte to regain France’s former lands called the Louisiana Territory
Those lands had gone to Spain in the Treaty of Paris in 1763.
Federalist legislators in Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1801, whichcreated new positions in the judicial branch.
Departing President John Adams hurried to fill them with Federalists.
Adams’s signed documents had to be delivered to each man to make the appointments official.
Not all were delivered before Jefferson took office the next day.
James Madison, the new secretary of state, refused to deliver the remaining commissions.
Native American leaders
One was a religious leader called the Prophet, or Tenskwatawa.
Thousands came to hear him speak against white culture at Prophetstown in present-day Indiana.
He taught his followers to reject white culture.
The Chesapeake and Leopard neutrality incident had some American politicians calling for war.
They were known as War Hawks.
The United States declared war on Great Britain in 1812.
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