CHAPTER 11. A DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTION1820-1844. The Rise of Popular Politics 1820-1829. The decline of notables and the Ascent of Parties.PropertyRise of the common manMartin Van Buren
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2. CHAPTER 11 A DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTION
3. The Rise of Popular Politics 1820-1829 The decline of notables and the Ascent of Parties.
Rise of the common man
Martin Van Buren “the little Magician” architect of the new political party system.
4. Election of 1824 Era of good feelings was over by 1824, however there were no political parties, therefore states nominated their favorite son for the presidency:
1821 South Carolina-John C. Calhoun
1822 Tennessee-Andrew Jackson
1822 Kentucky-Henry Clay
1823 Congressional caucus-William H. Crawford
1823 Massachusetts-John Q. Adams
5. Election continued 1824 Calhoun announces he’s candidate for the Vice-presidency.
Election results: Jackson 99 electoral votes, Adams 84, Crawford 41, Clay 37.
Election thrown into the House of representatives: Crawford had suffered a paralytic stroke.
6. Election continued House rule: only consider the top three vote getters, this rule eliminated Clay. Leaving only Jackson and Adams to be seriously considered by the house.
House voted Adams 13 votes, Jackson 7 votes and Crawford 4 votes.
7. Corrupt Bargain Clay throws his support to Adams, Adams in turn names Clay as Secretary of State. Rep. George Kremer (Pa.) and Jackson made the accusation against Adams and Clay.
Jackson announces in 1824 that he’s running for presidency in the election of 1828.
9. Opposition to Adams Jackson announces his candidacy for president in 1828.
The south opposed any measure supported by the Adams administration.
Vice-president John C. Calhoun staffs Senate with anti-Adams people.
11. Opposition Continued Tariff of 1828: Tariff of Abominations, led by northern Jacksonians, in an effort to discredit the Adams administration. The house framed a bill more intend on manufacturing a president than protecting manufacturing.
The tariff however was signed into law on the basis that it offered protection.
12. Tariff Continued Southern reaction to the tariff:
South Carolina passed a resolution claiming the bill unconstitutional, oppressive, and unjust. The states of Mississippi and Virginia did the same thing.
Southerners blamed Adams for the tariff
South Carolina Exposition and Protest written by John C. Calhoun.
14. Election of 1828 The Democratic Republicans nominated Andrew Jackson for President and John C. Calhoun for Vice-president.
National Republicans nominated John Adams for President and Richard Rush for Vice-President.
15. Election of 1828 Jackson got 178 electoral votes
Adams got 83 electoral votes
17. Presidency of Jackson 1829-1837 Jackson Agenda
Patronage and Policy
Roger B. Taney
Martin Van Buren
William L. Marcy
18. Jackson Continued The mood of the first administration of President Jackson was set in December of 1828 with the death of his wife Rachel. Jackson felt that she had died of a broken heart by the attacks of the Pro-Adams people.
John Eaton affair,
Sectry. Of State Martin Van Buren
19. Webster-Hayne Debate In December of 1829 Senator Samuel A. Foot of Connecticut proposed a resolution inquiring into the expediency of temporarily restricting the sale of public lands.
Thomas Hart Benton answered by saying it was an attempt to check the settlement and prosperity of the west The spread of slavery was more at issue.
20. Webster-Hayne Continued The debate centered mainly on Webster and Robert Hayne on the issue of state right v. the union.
The Jefferson Day Dinner.
Jackson “Our Union: It must be preserved.
Calhoune “Our Union: next to our liberty, most dear.
21. Jackson One of the major issues of the administration of Jackson the the nullification crisis of 1832-33.
South Carolina was hypersensitive to the issue of slavery and state-rights.
Reasons for the sensitive:
a high concentration of slaves
the abolitionists movement of January 1830
Denmark Vessy 1822 in Charleston S.C.
1831 Nat Turner rebellion in Virginia
22. Jackson Continued In 24 November 1832 South Carolina met in convention and passed a resolution nullify the tariff of 1832. Their conclusion was based on three false assumptions:
That the constitution was subject to definitive interpretation.
That one party to a contract could interpret the agreement without destroying it.
23. South Carolina Continued A minority of a nation could reassume its sovereignty but a minority in a state could not.
Jackson on 10 December 1832 issues a proclamation to the people of South Carolina:
your ordinances of nullification are an impractical absurdity.
Disunion by armed force is treason.
28 December 1832 Vice-president Calhoune resigns as V.P.
24. Nullification Crisis Force Bill:
Jackson ask congress for authority to use military force in South Carolina to collect the tariff duties.
Jackson signed both the compromise of 1833 and the Force Bill into on 2 Mar. 1833. This ended the nullifications crisis.
In a face saving gesture the South Carolina legislature nullified the force act.
25. The Bank War The bank war:
Clay and Webster needed an issue for the election of 1832.
Nicholas Biddle to ask for an early recharter.
Jackson would veto the bill, the National Republicans then would use the issue of the bank against Jackson.
Jackson win the election of 1832.
Jackson 219 electoral votes to Clay’s 49 electoral votes. Jackson saw the election as a mandate to kill the Bank now.
26. Bank War Continued Jackson wants to remove federal funds from the bank.
Asks Secretary of Treasury McLane to remove the funds. McLane refused to do so and Jackson reorganized his cabinet and appointed McLane to Secretary of State and appointed William J. Duane as Secretary of Treasury. He asked Duane to remove the funds from the Bank of the United States, Duane refused to do so, Duane was replaced by Roger Brooks Taney.
Public funds no longer deposited in Bank of U.S.
Pet Banks (Girard Bank of Philadelphia ) by 1833 23 banks was “Pet Banks”.
27. Indian Removal Indian Removal Act 1830, offered Indians land west of the Mississippi in exchange for their Ancestral holdings.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) the Supreme court rule that they were a domestic dependent nation. Therefore could not bring a case against a state.
In Worcester v. Georgia, the court ruled that the were a distinct political community.
Jackson said “Marshall has made his decision let him enforce it”.
Trail of Tears
28. Legacy of Jackson Jackson’s affect on the economy of the United States
Enhanced the Power of the Presidency
Appointed Chief Justice Roger Brooks Taney
Rise of the “Common Man”.
29. Presidential Election of 1836 The Democratic Party met in Baltimore in May of 1835 and chose Martin Van Buren for president and Richard M. Johnson for vice-president.
The Whigs unable to select a candidate named several candidates with stung local followings in hopes of throwing the election into the house.
30. Election Continued Massachusetts nominated Daniel Webster
Hugh L. White was nominated by Tennessee legislature.
Ohio nominated William H. Harrison
In the election Van Buren won with 170 electoral votes
31. Panic of 1837 Causes of the Panic:
Over speculation in industry
Over speculation in farming
Tighten of Credit domestically and from foreign banks in England.
Surplus of workers
32. Election of 1840 The Whig party nominated William Henry Harrison for President and John Tyler for Vice-president.
The democratic party nominated Martin Van Buren for President and Richard M. Johnson for Vice-president.
Campaign of 1840 “Log Cabin-Hard Cider campaign for the democratic and the Whigs adopted the “Tippecanoe and Tyler Too” slogan.
33. Elections Continued Harrison and Tyler were elected and the administration of Harrison’s had many firsts:
First modern day campaign
Oldest President elected to date, 68 yrs. Old.
Coldest day in Washington’s history on inaugural day.
Harrison gave the longest inaugural address 1 hour and 45mins.
Shortest administration 1 month, Harrison dies 4 Apr. 1841
First Vice-President to assume Presidency due to death of President.
34. The Tyler Administration John Tyler of Virginia was a former democrat who joined the Whigs simply to oppose Jackson’s nullification stance.
Many aspects he was just like Jackson
Favored rapid settlement of West
Opposed Clay’s American System
Opposed the National Bank