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Low Energy Interplanetary Transfers Using the Halo Orbit Hopping Method with STK/AstrogatorPowerPoint Presentation

Low Energy Interplanetary Transfers Using the Halo Orbit Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

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7. Halo Orbit Insertion at Sun Jupiter L2 Lagrangian point 8. Station Keeping at Sun Jupiter L2 Lagrangian point 9. Transfer from Sun Jupiter L2 to Sun Saturn L2 Lagrangian point 10. Station Keeping at Sun Saturn L2 Lagrangian point

Low Energy Interplanetary Transfers Using the Halo Orbit Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

Tapan R. Kulkarni

Daniele Mortari

Department of Aerospace Engineering,

Texas A&M University

College Station, TX 77840

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

Outline Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

- Aims and Scope of this research
- Circular restricted three-body problem
- Halo orbit targeting methods using STK/Astrogator
- Results
- Discussion
- Conclusion

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

Aims and Scope Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

- To find low energy interplanetary transfer orbits from Earth to distant planets
- To find L2 halo orbit insertion method,
- Perform the L2 station-keeping operations, and
- To determine halo orbit hopping method between subsequent L2 halo orbits.

- To find a method of maintaining seamless radio contact with Earth and simultaneous planetary exploration
- To design all the trajectories using STK/Astrogator

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

Gravity Assisted Trajectory Method Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

- Most famous method for sending spacecraft to distant planets. E.g., Cassini mission to Saturn (Oct ’97- Jul ’04)
- Advantages: higher speeds (short transfer times).
- Disadvantages: cost, constraint imposed by the fly-by body, limitations due to impact parameter.

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

Circular Restricted Three-body Problem Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

- Solution of E.O.M. is not periodic and hence need of a control effort (L2).
- This is called Period or Frequency control in literature.
- The resulting periodic orbit is called a halo orbit.
- When the spacecraft is actively controlled to follow a periodic halo orbit, the orbit, generally does not close due to tracking error.

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

Targeting Methods Using STK/Astrogator Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

- The whole mission is split in steps and phases.
- Steps: Halo orbit insertion at SEL2, Halo orbit hopping sequence.
- Phases: Impulsive maneuvers, propagation, stopping conditions.

- Targeting method at every step uses the Differential Corrector (SVD) by defining a 3-D target.
- Perform a burn in anti-Sun line that takes the S/C in vicinity of Sun-Earth L2 Lagrangian point.
- Insertion: Adjust the burn in such a way the S/C crosses Sun-Planet L2 Z-X plane with Sun-Planet L2 Vx=0 Km/s.
- Station keeping: After several Sun-Planet Z-X plane crossings, perform station keeping operations.

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

- Performing the Engine burn I Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator
- Getting to the vicinity of L2
- Estimating the size of the burn
- Setting up the Targeter

- Propagating to the Anti-Sun Line
- Creating Calculation objects
- Setting up the Targeter
- Running the Targeter

Start

1

2

- Adjusting the Engine burn
- Targeting on the 2nd ZX plane crossing
- Setting up the Targeter
- Creating a Targeting profile
- Running the Targeter

- Performing the Engine burn II
- Creating a Targeting Profile
- Running the Targeter

- Specifying the constraints
- Cross the ZX plane with Vx=0

3

4

5

Completing the First Target sequence to Orbit around L2

- Performing the station keeping Maneuver
- Setting up the Targeter
- Running the Targeter

6

7

Sequences in halo orbit insertion & station keeping operations

Targeting Methods using STK/Astrogator

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

Halo Orbit Targeting methods using STK/Astrogator Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

Initial Earth-circular orbit and Halo orbit insertion at Sun-Earth L2 Lagrangian point trajectory ( as seen in VO view)

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

Halo Orbit Targeting methods using STK/Astrogator Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

Halo orbit at Sun-Earth L2 Lagrangian point trajectory as seen in Y-Z plane (Map View)

Halo orbit at Sun-Earth L2 Lagrangian point trajectory as seen in X-Z plane (Map View)

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

Halo Orbit Targeting methods using STK/Astrogator Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

Variation of Delta V and Propagation time for Halo Orbit Hopping Segment from SE L2 to SM L2

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

Halo Orbit Targeting methods using STK/Astrogator Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

Halo orbit at Sun-Earth L2 Lagrangian point in Sun-Earth rotating frame of reference as seen in X-Y plane

Interplanetary trajectory from Sun-Earth L2 to Sun-Mars L2 in Sun-centered inertial frame of reference as seen in X-Y plane

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

Halo Orbit Targeting methods using STK/Astrogator Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

Halo Orbit around Sun-Mars L2 Lagrangian point in Sun-Mars rotating frame of reference as seen in X-Y plane

Interplanetary trajectory from Sun-Mars L2 to Sun-Jupiter L2 in Sun-centered inertial frame of reference as seen in X-Y plane

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

Halo Orbit Targeting methods using STK/Astrogator Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

Halo orbit insertion at Sun-Jupiter L2 Lagrangian point in Sun-Jupiter rotating frame of reference as seen in X-Y plane

Halo orbit around Sun-Jupiter L2 Lagrangian point in Sun-centered inertial frame of reference as seen in X-Y plane

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

Halo Orbit Targeting methods using STK/Astrogator Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

Jupiter located here

Halo orbit around Sun-Jupiter L2 Lagrangian point in Sun-Jupiter rotating frame of reference as seen in X-Y plane

Interplanetary trajectory from Sun-Jupiter L2 to Sun-Saturn L2 in Jupiter-centered inertial frame of reference as seen in Y-Z plane

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

Halo Orbit Targeting methods using STK/Astrogator Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

Saturn & Titan located here

Halo orbit around Sun-Saturn L2 Lagrangian point in Sun-Saturn rotating frame of reference as seen in X-Y plane

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

Results Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

- Earth Departure: 2007/8/1
- Halo Orbit Insertion at Sun Earth L2 Lagrangian point
- Duration: 14.5 days (approx.)
- ∆V: 3.170804 km/s ( approx.)

- Transfer from Sun Earth L2 to Sun Mars L2 Lagrangian point
- Duration: 955 days (approx.)
- ∆V :1.0318345 km/s

- Halo Orbit Insertion at Sun Mars L2 Lagrangian point
- Duration: 321 days (approx.)
- ∆V: -0.279681 km/s

- Station Keeping at Sun Mars L2 Lagrangian point
- Duration: 378 days (approx.)
- ∆V:0.19742 km/s

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

Results Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

- Transfer from Sun Mars L2 to Sun Jupiter L2 Lagrangian point
- Duration: 2595 days (approx.)
- ∆V: 2.08933911 km/s

- Duration: 411 days (approx.)
- ∆V: -0.42396 km/s

- Duration: 1642.5 days (approx.)
- ∆V: 0.40629 km/s

- Duration: 4881 days (approx.)
- ∆V: 1.3077 km/s

- Duration: 2244 days (approx.)
- ∆V:0.87984 km/s

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

Results Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

- More details about Station-keeping at SE L2, SML2, SJL2 and SSL2 :
- Station Keeping at Sun-Earth L2:
- DeltaV per year = 0.024827 km/s
- Duration = 1.0274 years
- No. of Z-X plane crossings = 4
- 2. Station-keeping at Sun-Mars L2:
- DeltaV per year = 0.19063 km/s
- Duration = 1.0356 years
- No. of Z-X plane crossings: 3
- 3. Station-keeping at Sun-Jupiter L2:
- DeltaV per year = 0.090286 km/s
- Duration = 4.5 years
- No. of Z-X plane crossings: 3
- 4. Station-keeping at Sun-Saturn L2:
- DeltaV per year = 0.143111 km/s
- Duration = 6.148 years
- No. of Z-X plane crossings: 3

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

Discussion Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

- Planets do not eclipse the spacecraft as seen in Y-Z plane
- Halo orbit originating in vicinity of L2 grows larger, but shorter in period as it shifts towards planet
- Small ∆V budget for station-keeping operations for halo orbit around Sun-Planet L2 Lagrangian point
- Halo orbit hopping method is slower than gravity assisted trajectory method (approximately 5 times slower)
- Saving of fuel by over 35% over gravity assisted trajectory method

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

Conclusion Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

- Continuous radio contact with Earth
- Simultaneous mapping of the planets possible
- Potential utility of placing satellites orbiting L2 and L1 Lagrangian points serving as Earth-Moon and Earth-Mars communication relays
- Method suitable for spacecrafts only, not for manned missions
- Suitability for multi-moon orbiter missions at Jupiter and Saturn

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

Questions ? Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

Thank you !! Hopping Method with STK/Astrogator

15th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

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