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Vocabulary - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Vocabulary. Text structures and paragraph order Quiz date ______________________. Text structure . Text structure refers to the ways that authors organize information in text. . **sequence.

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Text structures and paragraph order

Quiz date ______________________.

Text structure
Text structure

  • Text structure refers to the ways that authors organize information in text.


  • Similar to chronological, but is more of a step by step pattern. Items are listed in the order in which they occurred or in a specifically planned order in which they must develop. In this case, the order is important and changing it would change the meaning.

  • Signal words often used for chronological order or sequence are:

    first, second, third

    until etc.

    at last

    before, after




Cause effect

  • In this pattern, one item is showed as having produced another element. An event (effect) is said to have happened because of some situation or circumstance (cause). The cause (the action) stimulates the event, or effect (the outcome).

  • Signal words often used for cause and effect are:

    for this reason




    on that account


Compare contrast

  • Items are related by the comparisons (similarities) that are made or by the contrasts (differences) that are presented. The author's purpose is to show similarities and differences.

  • Signal words often used for comparison-contrast are:

    similar, different

    bigger than, smaller

    on the other hand



    in the same way



Problem solution

  • divides information into two main sections, one that describes a problem and one that describes a solution. This pattern is typically used in persuasive writing

  • Signal words:

    problem is

    dilemma is



    so that


    puzzle is solved


  • Provide specific details about what something looks, smells, tastes, sounds, or feels like. Organize spatially, in order of appearance, or by topic

  • Signal words:

    for example


    for instance

    such as

    is like


    to illustrate

Chronological order
Chronological order

  • Arranges information according to a progression of time. Works best when a topic is understood in terms of different segments of time.

  • For example, topics of an historical nature are best organized using this pattern.

  • Another example of this pattern is "past-present-future" or" before-during-after" segments.

Spatial order
Spatial order

  • a method of organization in which details are presented as they are (or were) located in space--such as, from left to right or from top to bottom

Order of importance
Order of importance

  • the arrangement of details or ideas in order of increasing importance or force: the principle of saving the best for last.


  • Arranges information according to different sub-topics within a larger topic, or the "types" of things that fall within a larger category. Using this pattern, each "type" represents a main section of information.

  • Example – a paper written on different types of dog breeds

    • Can sometimes be similar to descriptive