chapter 1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Chapter 1

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 71

Chapter 1 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 130 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 1. Historical Perspective of Water Use and Development. Chapter Headings. Drinking Water for Early Civilizations Early Irrigation and Flood-Control Projects Early Water Transportation Development Early Hydropower Development. What is Civilization?.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Chapter 1' - emilia


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 1

Chapter 1

Historical Perspective of Water Use and Development

chapter headings
Chapter Headings
  • Drinking Water for Early Civilizations
  • Early Irrigation and Flood-Control Projects
  • Early Water Transportation Development
  • Early Hydropower Development
what is civilization
What is Civilization?
  • For civilization to emerge you need
    • Agriculture
    • Cities
    • “Leisure time” to develop skilled workers
  • Among the key features are
    • Ability to manage water
    • Suitable soil and climate for agriculture
managing water resources
Managing Water Resources
  • Even in the earliest civilizations we can find evidence of water management
    • Delivery of drinking water to cities using qanats and aqueducts
    • Routing of wastewater out of cities
    • Delivery of water for agriculture through irrigation
    • Transportation
    • Hydropower
drinking water for early civilizations
Drinking Water for Early Civilizations
  • Earliest civilization centers emerged in:
    • Mesopotamia along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (Iraq)
    • Indus River (Pakistan)
    • Yangtze River (China)
    • Nile River (Egypt)
    • Greek and Roman empires (Mediterranean)
qanats
Qanats
  • Qanat system developed in Mesopotamia area
    • From a Semitic word meaning “to dig”
    • Semitic: subfamily of Afro-Asiatic language family that includes Hebrew and Arabic
  • Delivered ground water by gravity from an upland area where it was plentiful to lowland agricultural areas and cities
slide9

Qanat shafts served 3 purposes

    • Air supply
    • Remove soil and rock
    • Keep tunnels from being too long
  • http://www.livius.org/q/qanat/qanat.html

View down a shaft to water below

Outlet

Aerial photo showing collapsed shafts

aqueducts
Aqueducts
  • Roman empire developed an extensive system of aqueducts to deliver surface water by gravity to cities
  • Water was delivered to fountains and baths where citizens collected and used it
  • Allowed cities to grow in size
  • Reduced amount of time that individuals (usually women) spent obtaining daily water
slide11

Women at a stream collecting water to carry to their village in Cameroon

UNESCO

www.wateryear2003.org

slide16

Coaca Maxima (main sewer) for ancient Rome

Example of routing wastewater away from cities

http://courses.washington.edu/tande/urb/

drinking water today
Drinking Water Today
  • Supplying drinking water is still an important function today
  • Many problems
    • Water quality (bacteria, carcinogens, heavy metals, etc.)
    • Water quantity (competition with agricultural for water)
  • We’ll discuss these in later chapters
chapter headings1
Chapter Headings
  • Drinking Water for Early Civilizations
  • Early Irrigation and Flood-Control Projects
  • Early Water Transportation Development
  • Early Hydropower Development
early irrigation and flood control
Early Irrigation and Flood Control
  • Civilization centers developed where soils were fertile
  • For soils to be fertile nutrients must be collected and deposited in an area so that they become concentrated
    • Flooding deposits rich mountain (volcanic) soils in river floodplains
    • Glaciers deposit rich topsoils at their terminus and in wind blown loess
early irrigation and flood control1
Early Irrigation and Flood Control
  • Floodplains are often in dry areas that require irrigation
  • Nile River civilization is a good example
    • Sediments from the mountains of Ethiopia and Sudan are deposited in the floodplains of Egypt
    • Ancient Egyptians developed an elaborate irrigation system for Nile floodplain
slide23

Simple devices for lifting water from the river into irrigation canals:

shadoufs, tambour or Achimedes screw, and saqia water wheel

early irrigation in the u s
Early Irrigation in the U.S.
  • Anasazi Indians developed irrigation systems in Southwest desert region around 950 AD
slide27

Chaco Canyon irrigation

R.G. Vivian, Chaco Canyon Handbook

early irrigation in the u s1
Early Irrigation in the U.S.
  • Brigham Young and Mormon followers began extensive irrigation system in Salt Lake Valley of Utah in 1847
  • Region receives 15 in of annual rainfall
  • Constructed diversion dams across rivers and diverted water into irrigation ditches
    • Small diversion dams were made of logs, rocks and brush
    • Irrigation ditches were made using horse-drawn plows and hand digging
early irrigation in the u s2
Early Irrigation in the U.S.
  • Construction of an irrigation ditch was not simple
    • A ditch too steep would cause fast flow that would erode the ditch and wash it out
    • A ditch that was too flat would not move water
  • Rule of thumb was a fall of about 2 feet per mile
early irrigation in the u s3
Early Irrigation in the U.S.
  • Homestead Act passed in 1862
    • Opened the floodgates of development in the West
    • Anyone over the age of 21 could acquire ownership of 160 acres if
      • Lived on it for 5 years
      • Made improvements to the property
    • Cost was $1.25 per acre
  • Water for irrigation became a critical issue
early irrigation in the u s4
Early Irrigation in the U.S.
  • In 1870’s Horace Greeley, editor of NY Tribune promoted settlement in the West with the phrase “Go West, Young Man”
  • Time was ripe for western migration
    • Civil War ended in 1865
    • Transcontinental railroad completed in 1869
  • Organized a settlement in Colorado (today called Greeley) to replicate the irrigation successes of Mormons in Utah
early irrigation in the u s5
Early Irrigation in the U.S.
  • Late 1800’s was a period of unusually wet weather in West
  • As normal rainfall returned many settlers without irrigation water were forced to abandon their land and move into town to work in other professions
  • Drought period in 1930’s forced more settlers to abandon land and become migrant workers
    • Described in “Grapes of Wrath” by John Steinbeck
irrigation today
Irrigation Today
  • Irrigation today is extensive in western U.S. and other areas of the world
  • A number of associated problems
    • Competition for water with urban sources
    • Salinization of soils
    • Sedimentation of reservoirs
    • Effect on stream flow and water quality
  • Will discuss these in later chapters
chapter headings2
Chapter Headings
  • Drinking Water for Early Civilizations
  • Early Irrigation and Flood-Control Projects
  • Early Water Transportation Development
  • Early Hydropower Development
early transportation development
Early Transportation Development
  • One of the reasons civilization centers developed near rivers is these were the “interstates”
  • River and canal systems used for boat traffic
  • Nile and Yangtze River are examples
  • Later extensive canal system developed in Europe
early transportation development1
Early Transportation Development
  • Erie Canal constructed 1817-1825
    • Connected Buffalo on Lake Erie to Albany on Hudson River
    • 363 miles
    • Cut travel time from 20 days to 6 days
    • Cut transportation costs from $100 to $5/ton
  • Ohio & Erie Canal connected Ohio River to Lake Erie
slide42

Check Google map to see full extent of St. Lawrence River

http://www.google.com/maphp?hl=en&tab=wl&q=

slide44

Canal boat pulled by mule on towpath on the C &O canal

In Washington DC; canal ran 184 miles from Cumberland MD to DC

early transportation development2
Early Transportation Development
  • Mississippi River has been through history and continues to be a major transportation system for U.S.
  • Before steamboats keelboats and flatboats were used to move produce down river
  • After steamboats developed (1810) traffic ran up and downstream
  • Army Corps of Engineers responsible for clearing snags
water transport today
Water Transport Today
  • Water transportation not as critical today due to rail and trucking industries
  • Still a source of conflict
    • Navigational needs vs. urban and agricultural use of water
    • In 2003 Corp of Engineers released water from Lake Lanier and lower lakes on Chattahooche to float barge traffic at Columbus
    • Later that year drought conditions caused record low lake levels
  • We’ll discuss this in later chapters
chapter headings3
Chapter Headings
  • Drinking Water for Early Civilizations
  • Early Irrigation and Flood-Control Projects
  • Early Water Transportation Development
  • Early Hydropower Development
early hydropower development
Early Hydropower Development
  • Water wheels were used to grind grain as early as 100 BC in Greece
  • Until the time of steam engines, water mills were a major source of energy
  • By 1800 there were 500,000 water mills in Europe
  • Mills ground corn and wheat, powered bellows and hammers to make iron, ground ingredients for paper, cut wood, and powered textile mills
early hydropower development1
Early Hydropower Development
  • With the invention of the light bulb by Thomas Edison in 1879 hydropower began to be used to generate electricity
  • One of the first generating plants was built at Niagara Falls to supply electricity to Buffalo NY
    • Designed by George Westinghouse
  • Hydropower production peaked in the 1940’s when it provided 1/3 of electricity consumed in U.S.
slide65

Niagara Falls (right) and American Falls (left)

Hydroelectric plant was to the left of American Falls?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niagara_Falls

slide66

Two inlets above the fall diverted water into canals (right photo # 1 & 2); water flowed down canals to power houses (left diagram)

http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/exhibits/panam/sel/electricity.html

hydropower today
Hydropower Today
  • Hydropower is still important but ability to transmit electricity is making some dams less critical
  • Movement to remove dams in some cases
  • Focus on environmental impact of dams on fish such as salmon
  • We’ll discuss this in later chapters
chapter 1 summary
Chapter 1 Summary
  • Management of water resources has been a hallmark of civilizations throughout history
  • Water managed to provide drinking water, irrigation, flood control, navigation, and power
  • Although we’ve been managing water for centuries, many old and new problems now confront us
ad