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Welcome to Back!. TCP/IP Subnetting. Pop Quiz. TCP/IP Cheat Sheet. IP Addresses. My localhost -> 192.168.5.201 www.yahoo.com -> 87.248.113.14 . IP Addresses. Every IP Address has a node portion and a network portion. IP Address: 192.168.5.201

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pop quiz
Pop Quiz

TCP/IP Cheat Sheet

ip addresses
IP Addresses
  • My localhost -> 192.168.5.201
  • www.yahoo.com -> 87.248.113.14
ip addresses6
IP Addresses
  • Every IP Address has a node portion and a network portion

IP Address: 192.168.5.201

Network Portion: 192.168.5.201

Node Portion: 192.168.5.201

subnet mask
Subnet Mask
  • The subnet mask tells us which part of an IP address is the node portion vs. the network portion
  • An IP address without a subnet mask is meaningless

IP Address: 192.168.5.201

Subnet Mask:255.255.255.0

----------------------------------------------------

Network ID: 192.168.5.0

binary anding
Binary ANDing
  • AND is a mathematical operator just like

+ (plus) and – (minus)

  • 1 + 1 = 2
  • 1 AND 1 = 1
and truth table
AND Truth Table

A | B | A AND B

---------------------------------------

FALSE | FALSE | FALSE

FALSE | TRUE | FALSE

TRUE | FALSE | FALSE

TRUE | TRUE | TRUE

and truth table10
AND Truth Table

A B A AND B

-----------------------------

0 0 0

0 1 0

1 0 0

1 1 1

and truth table11
AND Truth Table

0 AND 0 = 0

0 AND 1 = 0

1 AND 0 = 0

1 AND 1 = 1

man vs machine
Man vs Machine
  • Human readable dotted decimal notation

192.168.5.201

    • Each number represents an “Octet” or 8 bits
  • What the computer sees:

11000000.10101000.00000101.11001001

11000000101010000000010111001001

subnet mask and anding
Subnet Mask and ANDing
  • IP: 192.168.5.201
  • Subnet: 255.255.255.0

IP: 11000000.10101000.00000101.11001001

Subnet: 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

-----------------------------------------------

11000000.10101000.00000101.00000000

IP: 11000000.10101000.00000101.11001001

Subnet: 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

-----------------------------------------------

11000000.10101000.00000101.00000000

AND

tcp ip cheat sheet the rules
TCP/IP Cheat Sheet: The Rules
  • The Subnet/network address is always hidden behind the 1s in the mask

IP: 11000000.10101000.00000101.11001001

Subnet: 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

-----------------------------------------------

11000000.10101000.00000101.00000000

tcp ip cheat sheet the rules15
TCP/IP Cheat Sheet: The Rules
  • The Host/Node address is always hidden behind the 0s in the mask

IP: 11000000.10101000.00000101.11001001

Subnet: 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

-----------------------------------------------

11000000.10101000.00000101.00000000

tcp ip cheat sheet the rules16
TCP/IP Cheat Sheet: The Rules

(Except in special cases)

  • The all-1s and all-0s subnet addresses are invalid (but NOT in CIDR)

Ex.

0s hide the host address

Network ID 192.168.1.0

Subnet Mask 255.255.255.128 ->

11111111.11111111.11111111.10000000

192.168.1.250= .11111010

--------------

10000000

192.168.1.5= .00000101

--------------

00000000

These bits belong to the Big IP in the Sky

(we can’t change them)

These are the bits that we own

1s hide the subnet address

Breaks the rule! (except in CIDR)

tcp ip cheat sheet the rules17
TCP/IP Cheat Sheet: The Rules

(Except in special cases)

  • The all-1s and all-0s host addresses are invalid (Always)

Ex.

IP Address: 192.168.1.0

Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0

OR

IP Address: 192.168.1.255

Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0

reason behind the rule
Reason Behind the Rule
  • The all zeros host address is the same as the network ID

Ex. IP: 192.168.1.0

Subnet: 255.255.255.0

----------------------------------------

Network ID: 192.168.1.0

  • The all ones host address is reserved for the broadcast address
practice problems
Practice Problems
  • 1 AND 1
  • 1 AND 0
  • 0 AND 1
  • 0 AND 0
  • 1111 AND 1010
  • 0000 AND 1010
  • 110101 AND 1101110
practice problems21
Practice Problems
  • 110010b to Decimal
  • 137d to Binary
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