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Do Now… How is a scientific investigation done?. Methods of Science Objectives: - Differentiate among control, independent variable, and dependent variable - Identify the scientific methods a biologist uses for research -Describe the difference between Theory and a Law. Ms. Scerra.

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ms scerra

Methods of ScienceObjectives:- Differentiate among control, independent variable, and dependent variable- Identify the scientific methods a biologist uses for research-Describe the difference between Theory and a Law

Ms. Scerra

the scientific method
The Scientific Method
  • Biologists work in different places in order to answer a question they may have.
  • Biologist all use similar methods to gather information and to answer questions, the Scientific Method
    • Even though scientists do not use scientific methods in the same way each time they conduct an experiment, they observe and infer throughout the entire process.
quick review
Quick Review
  • Observation – direct way of gathering information in an orderly way.
  • Inference – the process of combining what you know with what you have learned to draw a logical conclusion.
form a hypothesis
Form a Hypothesis
  • After observing, reviewing prior information and questioning, a biologist is able to format a hypothesis.
  • A Hypothesis is a testable explanation of a situation.
    • A Hypothesis that is supported through experiments and data is then accepted in the scientific community.
  • The occurrence of accidental or unexpected but fortunate results.

For example:

  • The discovery of Penicillin.
  • A petri dish was left out overnight and the next morning the scientist discovered a green fuzzy substance growing on it. Later they discovered it properties that it destroyed bacteria cells.
think pair share
  • Can you think of an event that was serendipitous?
  • Has serendipity occurred in your life?
  • Can you think of something that came about or was discovered through serendipity?
experimental design
Experimental Design
  • With that hypothesis, an experiment is created.
  • Experiment – investigation of a phenomenon in a controlled setting to test a hypothesis.
  • Each Experiment has:
    • Control Group – a group used for comparison.
    • Experimental Group – the group exposed to the factor being tested.
    • Independent Variable – the tested factor and may affect the outcome of the experiment.
    • Dependent Variable – results from or depends on changes to the independent variable.
    • Constant – a factor that remains fixed during an experiment.
collect and g ather data
Collect and Gather Data
  • Data- information gained from observations.
  • Quantitative Data- measurements of time, temperature, length, or other factors.
  • Qualitative Data- descriptions of what our senses detect.
analyze your data to form a conclusion
Analyze Your Data to Form a Conclusion
  • What can we conclude from this graph?
report your conclusions
Report Your Conclusions
  • After experimenting you must come to some type of conclusion either disproving or proving your hypothesis!
  • Conclusions are published so others can review the results and discuss the merit of the experiment.
do now
Do Now!
  • What is the SI unit system of measurement?
  • Why is it used?
  • What unit would I use to describe length? Mass? Volume?
  • Explain the nature of science
  • Compare and contrast the English and metric systems
  • Practice conversions between metric units.
nature of science
Nature of Science
  • *Uses Scientific Theory…
  • Theory
    • Explanation of natural phenomenon supported by many observations and experiments over time
    • Explains how or why something happens.
    • Ex: The Big Bang Theory (not the show!), Cell Theory
  • Law
    • A statement about an event that occurs in nature
    • Doesn’t give us the “how” or “why” explanation
    • Usually expressed as a mathematical equation
    • Ex: The Law of Gravity, Boyle’s Law, etc.
expands scientific knowledge
Expands Scientific Knowledge
  • Science is under constant reevaluation of what is known.
  • Ex. Classification, Food Pyramid
  • Can lead to new knowledge
  • Reevaluation cycle continues!
challenges accepted theories
Challenges Accepted Theories
  • Scientists debate each other’s ideas
  • Science accommodates new information as it is discovered
questions results
Questions Results
  • Scientist can find data that is not consistent with current scientific understanding
  • These inconsistencies often lead to further investigations
test claims
Test Claims
  • Conclusions are reached after
    • Controlled experiments
    • Unbiased investigations
    • Large amounts of data
undergoes peer review
Undergoes Peer Review
  • Experiments are reviewed by scientist’s peers. (Peer review )
  • Evaluated by other scientists who are in the same field or who are conducting similar research.
measurements used in science
Measurements Used in Science
  • Different methods used for measuring
  • International System of Units (SI)- what scientists all over the world use
    • Measured in groups of 10
length si
Length - SI
  • SI uses the meter
  • Measures how long something is
  • Tools: Ruler, meter stick
  • SI uses m3
  • Most often we use liter
  • Measures how much space

Something takes up

mass and weight
Mass and Weight
  • Mass = how much matter something has
  • SI units are kilogram (kg)
  • Weight = force of gravity on an object
time and temperature
Time and Temperature
  • Time: period between two events
    • SI unit is seconds (s)
  • Temperature: how much heat contained in an object (how hot or cold something is)
    • SI unit is Kelvin (K)
    • Scientists often use Celsius (C)
  • 4 kiloliters= ___________ hectoliters
  • 36.87 millimeters= ________ decameters
  • 0.098 meters = ___________ micrometers
  • 56.7 decimeters= _________ decameters