Radio frequency interference
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Radio Frequency Interference. Regional Preparatory Workshop for WRC-15 Lima, Peru March 12, 2013. Mike Biggs Senior Engineer US FAA Spectrum Engineering Services.

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Radio frequency interference

Radio Frequency Interference

Regional Preparatory Workshop for WRC-15

Lima, Peru

March 12, 2013

Mike Biggs

Senior Engineer

US FAA Spectrum Engineering Services


What is radio frequency interference rfi

ITU Definition: The effect of unwanted energy due to one or a combination of emissions, radiations, or inductions upon reception in a radiocommunication system, manifested by any performance degradation, misinterpretation, or loss of information which could be extracted in the absence of such unwanted energy.

Criteria to mitigate inter-system interference are established as an element of ICAO SARPs.

E.g., 8 dB D/U for co-channel DME assignments

What is Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)?


Radio frequency interference

US RFI Yearly Activity Statistics

  • Maintenance Management System (MMS) Data

  • Event Manager System (EMS) Data

  • Spectrum RFI Tracking System (RFIT) Data

ICAO Regional Preparatory Workshop for WRC-15

March 2013


Radio frequency interference

RFI Categories

  • Authorized Transmissions

    • Properly Licensed (i.e. FM, AM, TV)

  • Unauthorized Transmissions

    • Wireless Video Cameras

    • High Power Cordless Telephones

    • Unlicensed Pirate FM Stations Spurious

  • Intentional

    • Unauthorized Jamming

    • “Phantom” Controllers

  • Unintentional

    • Spurious Transmissions

ICAO Regional Preparatory Workshop for WRC-15

March 2013


Radio frequency interference

RFI Sources

  • Citizens Band (CB) Radios (5th harmonic)

  • Paging Systems

  • Stuck Microphone Transmissions

  • Cell phone Spurious Emissions

  • Electronic Attack (EA) Missions

  • Power line Noise (Broadband Noise)

  • Anomalous Propagation

  • Atmospheric Conditions

  • Amateur “HAM” Radio

  • Land Mobile/Dispatch

ICAO Regional Preparatory Workshop for WRC-15

March 2013


Radio frequency interference

US National Airspace System RFI

  • Most Common Source of RFI:

  • Unauthorized Transmissions

  • Pirate FM Broadcast Spurious

  • Most Common FAA Victim:

  • VHF/UHF Voice Communications

  • Most Difficult RFI to Resolve:

  • High Altitude Pilot Only Reported RFI

  • Intermittent RFI (Airborne/Ground)

  • Broadband RFI on Many Frequencies

  • Phase Shift Keying RF Transmissions

ICAO Regional Preparatory Workshop for WRC-15

March 2013


Radio frequency interference

US RFI Investigation Resources

  • FAA Personnel and Organizations:

    • ATO Spectrum Engineering Services

      • Headquarters

      • Technical Center

      • Command Center

    • Frequency Management Officers (FMO)

      • Technical Operations Service Areas

      • Aeronautical Center

    • Technical Support Field Specialists (Technicians)

    • Aviation System Standards (Flight Inspection)

      • One International FIO

      • Six National FIOs

ICAO Regional Preparatory Workshop for WRC-15

March 2013


Radio frequency interference

Automated or Manual

Full Equipment Suite

DF Control/Mapping

20 - 3000 MHz

RFI Investigation Resources

  • FAA Assets and Software Tools

  • Radio Frequency Interference Monitoring (RFIM) Vans

Regional Used mainly by FMOs

Most Complete Measurement System

ICAO Regional Preparatory Workshop for WRC-15

March 2013


Radio frequency interference

Regional

Automated Vehicle mounted mobile DF

Detection Band 20-2000 MHz

29 RFID

Systems

GPS DF Antenna

L1 - 1575.42 MHz

Portable DF (RFID)

ICAO Regional Preparatory Workshop for WRC-15

March 2013


Radio frequency interference

Regional System Management Office (SMO)

33 Offices in the NAS

K95-103 Detection Coverage

20 – 3000 MHz

Typically 2 miles

Regional

Most Cost effective First choice instrument for technicians

Approx. 300

K95-100 Systems

GPS DF Antenna

L1,L2,L5

VHF Yagi Antenna

Directional

Handheld DF (K95-103)

ICAO Regional Preparatory Workshop for WRC-15

March 2013


Radio frequency interference

AVN

Flight Check NASE/RFI Program to assist in locating RFI/GPS sources

First Choice when High Altitude PIREPS ONLY

DF Control/Mapping

Operated Automation

GPS DF Array & VHF DF Array

L1,L2,L5 & 108 - 174 MHz

Airborne DF

ICAO Regional Preparatory Workshop for WRC-15

March 2013


Radio frequency interference

Chicago

NIMDS

New York

NIMDS

Master

IMDS

Los Angeles

NIMDS

Miami

NIMDS

National RFI Initiative

  • FAA Assets and Software Tools

    • Los Angeles (LAX), Chicago (ORD), New York (JFK), Miami (MIA)

    • FAA Intranet Web based Graphical User Interface (GUI)

    • Web Browser Control of Fixed DF and Spectrum Analyzer

ICAO Regional Preparatory Workshop for WRC-15

March 2013


Radio frequency interference

WEB IMDS

Receiver Tuned Frequency

DF Processor Bearing Averaging Triangulation

Multiple Audio Playback Capability

Synchronized Spectrum Analyzer Spectral View

Interference Monitoring Detection System (IMDS)

ICAO Regional Preparatory Workshop for WRC-15

March 2013


Radio frequency interference

WEB IMDS

Triangulated Bearing Averages Overlay on Map

Increases Fix Calculation Ellipse Accuracy

Multiple Ellipse Calculation for Smaller Ellipse

Mapping Triangulation

ICAO Regional Preparatory Workshop for WRC-15

March 2013


Radio frequency interference

Aircraft Situation Display

(ASD)

Traffic Flow of potential aircraft PIREPS

RLOS Footprint

Lowest Aircraft Altitude

VENN Diagram Overlay Area

Flight Explorer ASD

ICAO Regional Preparatory Workshop for WRC-15

March 2013


Radio frequency interference

Audio

Detection

Visual

Intensities

Used for Matching with known

sources

Audio Spectral Views

Audio Spectrogram Analysis

ICAO Regional Preparatory Workshop for WRC-15

March 2013


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