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卤 素 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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卤 素. 周期表第七主族元素包括氟、氯、溴、碘和放射性元素砹,称为卤素 (halogen) 。 希腊文原义是成盐元素,这些元素都是典型的非金属元素,易与典型的金属元素生成盐(如: NaCl 、 KF 等 )。. 卤 素 的 通 性. 一、卤素原子的物理性质* 原子的价层结构为: ns 2 np 5 ,因此在化学反应中卤素原子较易取得一个电子而形成负离子 X - 。. 卤素的基本性质 元素 F Cl Br I

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卤 素

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  • (halogen)

  • NaClKF


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*

  • ns2np5X


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F Cl Br I

9 17 35 53

-1 -113457

64 99 114 133

X- 133 181 196 220

1682 1251 1141 1008

-333 -349 -325 -295

4 3 2.8 2.5

X- -515 -381 -347 -305


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*


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  • Cl2Br2I2


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2Cl2 + 3Ca(OH)2 === Ca(ClO)2

+ CaCl2Ca(OH)2H2O + H2O

Ca(ClO)2 + 2H2O === Ca(OH)2 + 2HClO

HClO HCl +[O]


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3Cl2 + 6KOH==== KClO3 +

5KCl + 3H2O KClO3

2ClO2 + H2O ==== HClO2 + HClO3

8HClO2 ==== 6ClO2 + Cl2 + 4H2O

3HClO ==== 2HCl + HClO3

3HClO3 ==== HClO4 + Cl2 + 2O2 + H2O


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3Br2 + 6KOH ==== KBrO3 + 5KBr + 3H2O

3BrO- === BrO3- + 2Br-

2HBrO ==== HBrO2 + HBr


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I2 + 2KOH=== NaI + NaIO + H2O

55

I2 + 2KOH === 2KIO + H2O

3KIO === 2KI + KIO3

3I2 + 6KOH === KIO3 + 5KI + 3H2

5HIO === HIO3 + 2I2 + 2H2O


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*


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  • ()


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1

2-1MX-1

1M


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2MHPHXPCl3PCl5

3MXXX2


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3FFClBrI+1+3+5+7


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*

1

  • F2CuNiMgF2


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  • Cl2Fe

  • Br2I2

    1

    2


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2

  • O2N2F2

  • Cl2F2OClO2

  • FBrIClFClF3ICl3


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  • BrIP

  • H2F2Cl2H2

  • Br2I2H2


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3

  • X2

    1 4X2 + 2H2O ==== 4H+ + 4X- + O2

  • F2

  • Cl2


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2

  • Cl2Br2

    X2 + 2H2O ==== H3O+ + X- + HXO

  • X2


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1

  • HXHX

  • HX(g)fHm


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  • HX(aq)HFHI

  • HClHI

  • HX


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  • X-

  • HFHIHF

  • HFHIHF


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2

1H2

H2 + X2 === 2HX

  • H2Cl2F2Br2I2


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2MX(HX)

2MX + H2SO4==== M2SO4 + 2HX

CaF2 + H2SO4 ==== CaSO4 + 2HF

NaCl + H2SO4 ==== NaHSO4 + HCl

NaHSO4 + NaCl ==== Na2SO4 + HCl ()

  • MBrMIH3PO4HBrHIH2SO4


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3HBrHI

  • PBr3PI3

    PBr3 +3H2O H3PO3 + 3HBr

    4RH

  • HXHX


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1


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  • ClO2

    2ClO2 + H2O ==== HClO2 + HClO3

  • HClO2HClO3


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  • I2O5HIO3COCO

    I2O5 + 5CO ==== 5CO2 + I2


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2

HXO HXO2 HXO3 HXO4

  • HClO4HIO3HIO4H5IO6


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1HXOXO-

HClO HBrO HIO

  • HXOpH 8


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XO- + H2O ==== HXO + OH-

  • OH-

HXOX2H2O

X2 + H2O ==== H+ + X- +HXO

KoCO32-


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  • HXO

    2HXO 2HX + O2

  • IO-

    3HXO === 2HX + HXO3

    IO- I- + IO3-


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2HXO2XO2-

  • HClO2HClO2HClOClO2-

2ClO2 + Na2O2 === 2NaClO2 + O2


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  • 3NaClO2 ==== 2NaClO3 + NaCl

  • H2SO4 + Ba(ClO2)2 == BaSO4+ 2HClO2


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3HXO3XO3-

  • HClO3 HBrO3 HIO3

  • HClO3HBrO3HIO3

  • BrO3- ClO3- IO3-


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Ba(XO3)2 + H2SO4 ==== BaSO4+ 2HXO3

I2 + 10HNO3 === 2HIO3 + 10NO2+ 4H2

3I2 + NaOH ==== NaIO3 + 5NaI + 3H2O

KI + 6KOH + 3Cl2 = KIO3 + 6KCl + 3H2O


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4

  • HXO4 XO4-H5IO6 HIO4IO65-IO4-HClO4HClO4

  • H5IO6 HIO4


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XO4-


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HIO4IO65-


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  • 2Mn25IO43H2O === 2MnO4

    5IO3 6H


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5

  • X-


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  • H+H+


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HClO MClO

HClO2 MClO2

HClO3 MClO3

HClO4 MClO4


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