Evolution
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Evolution. Breaking Down the Definitions Honors. Evolution Natural selection Adaptation Fitness Convergent evolution Divergent evolution Adaptive radiation Artificial selection Coevolution Population genetics Microevolution Bell curve Gene pool Allele frequency Phenotype frequency

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Breaking down the definitions honors
Breaking Down the Definitions Honors

  • Evolution

  • Natural selection

  • Adaptation

  • Fitness

  • Convergent evolution

  • Divergent evolution

  • Adaptive radiation

  • Artificial selection

  • Coevolution

  • Population genetics

  • Microevolution

  • Bell curve

  • Gene pool

  • Allele frequency

  • Phenotype frequency

  • Hardy-Weinberg Genetic Equilibrium

  • Gene flow

  • Genetic drift

  • Sexual selection

  • Stabilizing selection

  • Disruptive selection

  • Directional selection

  • Speciation

  • Geographic isolation

  • Allopatric speciation

  • Reproductive isolation

  • Sympatric speciation


Breaking down the definitions regular
Breaking Down the Definitions Regular

  • Evolution

  • Natural variation

  • Artificial selection

  • Fitness

  • Adaptation

  • Natural selection

  • Gene pool

  • Directional selection

  • Stabilizing selection

  • Disruptive selection

  • Genetic drift

  • Hardy-Weinberg Principle

  • Genetic equilibrium

  • Speciation

  • Reproductive isolation

  • Behavioral isolation

  • Geographic isolation

  • Temporal isolation


History of evolution
History of Evolution

  • Originally most scientists believed species were permanent and unchanging

  • With the discovery of fossils of unique organisms, CATASTOPHISM, was a theory that sudden geologic changes caused extinction of large groups of organisms.

  • Jean Baptiste Lamarck came up with an early idea of evolution, that individuals could acquire traits during their lifetimes and pass those traits on to offspring


Charles darwin
Charles Darwin

  • Darwin spent years traveling the globe and making detailed observations to develop the theory of NATURAL SELECTION.

  • Brainpop! Charles Darwin

  • Darwin’s Finches Activity



Natural selection
Natural Selection Seeds, Insects

  • Natural Selection= the mechanism (the ‘how’) for descent with modification. Basically, organisms best suited for an environment will survive to pass on their traits to their offspring. Organisms lacking traits to make them successful will die and therefore not be able to pass on the unsuccessful traits.



Overproduction
Overproduction Seeds, Insects

  • Species produce more individuals than will survive to maturity

  • The environment will limit the number of individuals that reach adulthood


Genetic variation
Genetic Variation Seeds, Insects

  • Individuals of a population differ in traits such as size, color, strength, speed, ability to find food, resistance to disease


Struggle to survive
Struggle to Survive Seeds, Insects

  • Individuals within a population must compete with each other for limited resources (food, shelter, etc).

  • A trait that makes an individual successful in its environment (thick fur in cold climates) is called an ADAPTATION.

  • Giraffe Video Clip


Differential reproduction
Differential Reproduction Seeds, Insects

  • Organisms with the best adaptations are the most likely to survive and therefore pass on those successful adaptations to offspring

  • Through inheritance the adaptations will become more frequent in the population

  • The environment, ‘selects’, the most favorable traits = NATURAL SELECTION

  • Natural Selection Crash Course


Survival of the fittest
Survival of the Fittest Seeds, Insects

  • Fitness is a measure of an individual’s hereditary contribution to the next generation.

  • A ‘fit’ individual is one that has offspring that live long enough to also reproduce.

  • Lion Fitness Activity


Modeling natural selection
Modeling Natural Selection Seeds, Insects

  • Bird Beak Lab with write up

  • Battle of the Bird Beaks!


Types of evolution
Types of Evolution Seeds, Insects

  • CONVERGENT EVOLUTION: The process by which different species evolve similar traits.

  • The anole lizard evolved on 2 separate islands from 2 distinct ancestors, but since each species had similar habitats they both evolved with similar twig-dwelling traits, but remain 2 separate species.


Types of evolution1
Types of Evolution Seeds, Insects

  • DIVERGENT EVOLUTION: process in which descnedants of a single ancestor diversify into separate species that fit different environments

  • ADAPTIVE EVOLUTION: a new population will evolve traits to fit its new environment


Honors homework
Honors Homework! Seeds, Insects

  • Quick Lab on p.309

  • Find at least 2 organisms (at least one of which must by wild) and make observations (written AND drawn) of the organism

  • For each organism also explain why you think they have developed certain traits or adaptations.


Population genetics
Population Genetics Seeds, Insects

  • The study of evolution from a genetic point of view

  • Variation of traits within a population can be shown on a bell curve, with most organisms falling in the middle range


Causes of genetic variation
Causes of Genetic Variation Seeds, Insects

  • Environmental factors

  • Heredity

  • Mutation

  • Recombination


The gene pool
The Gene Pool Seeds, Insects

  • The GENE POOL = the total genetic information available in a population (all of the possible alleles)

  • ALLELE FREQUENCY= the specific allele (A or a) divided by the total number of alleles in the population

  • PHENOTYPE FREQUENCY= the specific phenotype (Red or Pink) divided by the total number of organisms

  • Flower Color Activity


Hardy weinberg genetic equilibrium
Hardy-Weinberg Genetic Equilibrium Seeds, Insects

  • Genotype frequencies in a population tend to remain the same from generation to generation unless acted upon by an outside influence.

  • Ideal population in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium:

    • No mutations occur

    • No individuals enter or leave the population

    • The population is large

    • Individuals mate randomly

    • Natural Selection does not occur


Disruption of genetic equilibrium
Disruption of Genetic Equilibrium Seeds, Insects

  • Mutation

  • Gene Flow—immigration and emigration

  • Genetic Drift—allele frequencies change as a result of random events, leading to a particular allele (A or a) disappearing completely and thereby reducing genetic variation. GENETIC DRIFT is only significant in small populations

  • Nonrandom Mating—Sexual selection

  • Natural Selection—stabilizing, disruptive, directional selection


Population genetics crash course
Population Genetics Crash Course Seeds, Insects

  • Hardy-Weinberg Practice!


Formation of species
Formation of Species Seeds, Insects

  • SPECIATION is the process of the formation of a new species.

  • A species is a group of organisms that can successfully interbreed (and the offspring can also reproduce) and have similar morphological (internal and external structures) features.


Isolation and speciation
Isolation and Speciation Seeds, Insects

  • Geographic (allopatric) Isolation- populations become physically separated (canyon, river,mountains) and gene flow between the 2 groups stops. Natural selection and genetic drift then make the 2 groups incompatible for mating and the 2 groups evolve separately.


Isolation and speciation1
Isolation and Speciation Seeds, Insects

  • Reproductive (sympatric) Isolation– barriers to successful breeding between 2 populations. Examples: different mating times, different mating calls


Speciation video clips
Speciation Video Clips Seeds, Insects

  • Geographic Separation

  • Speciation Crash Course


Review
Review Seeds, Insects


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