Verb-second and clitic-second in Old French. Jennifer Culbertson [email protected] Geraldine Legendre Johns Hopkins University. Traditional approaches to V2 in OF. V2 verb in 2 nd position following arbitrary element
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(2) Seignurs baruns, a Carlemagnesirez;
“Barons,[break],to Charlemagne(you)will go.”
[5% of all main clauses in Chanson de Roland]
(5) a. Imperative:Dunezlil'arc
b.Declarative: Vintises nies.
c. Question: Faiteslevos de gred?
“Will (you) doitnow?”
d. Quote: Distli paiens…
NONINITIAL(X): violated by candidates with [X] at the left edge of the intonational phrase (typically clause)
EDGEMOST(X): gradiently violated by candidates with [X] not aligned with left edge of the intonational phrase
INTEGRITY(XP): violated by candidates with elements intervening within an XP unit (Anderson 2005)
EPP: violated by candidates with empty specIP (satisfied by pro)
*t: violated by movement traces (called STAY in Grimshaw 1997, see also Legendre 2001)
(7) Li empererestentses mains vers Deu. “The emperorheldhis hands toward God”
Key points: SVX clauses are IPs, *t eliminates CP
NI(F) >> E(F)
(8) Vers dulce Francechevalchetl'emperere.
“Toward sweet Francerodethe emperor.”
Key points: XVS clauses are IPs
*t eliminates CP candidate
(9) Demi Espaignevusduratil.
“Half of Spainhewill giveyou.”
Key points: E(Cl) >> E(F)
clitics are coindexed with pro (Borer 1986)
Key points: INT(XP) is highly ranked
(10) Dunezlil'arc“Givehimthe sword”
Key points: E(IMP) is highly ranked
(11)a …querecevrezla lei de chrestiens
“…that (you) receivethe law of the christians”
EPP & E(F)
(12) c…queli Franceisasmastesa ferir;
“…thatthe Frank (you) will fight”
d…queen Sarragucedescendentsuz un if.
“…thatin Sarraguce (they) descend under a cliff”
Key points: if subj. pro can satisfy EPP, so can obj pro
Special Thanks to Paul Smolensky
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