Drainage basin
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Drainage Basin. Mississippi River Basin. Drainage Basin. From Ritter et al., 1995. Interception and Evapotranspiration. Interception: water captured by vegetation and which does not reach the ground.

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Drainage Basin

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Drainage basin

Drainage Basin


Mississippi river basin

Mississippi River Basin


Drainage basin1

Drainage Basin


Drainage basin

From Ritter et al., 1995


Interception and evapotranspiration

Interception and Evapotranspiration

  • Interception: water captured by vegetation and which does not reach the ground.

  • Evapotranspiration: Evaporation (phase change of water from liquid to vapor) + transpiration (water carried from roots to leaves and lost from leaves)

Figure from Chernicoff and Fox, 1997


Flow abstractions

Interception

Rainfall intercepted by vegetation before falling to the ground surface

Volume controlled by type, density, and growth stage of vegetation.

Volume decreases with time during the event

Evapotranspiration:

Includes both evaporation and Transpiration.

In transpiration, water is moved from the soil, up the plant stem to the leaves, and is lost from the leaves.

Most occurs after the event, rather than during the event.

Flow Abstractions


Flow abstractions1

Flow Abstractions

  • Surface Storage and Detention:

    • Volume of water that fills depressions on ground surface.

    • Does not become part of excess precipitation (direct runoff).

    • Must fill detention storage before runoff can occur.

Dunn and Leopold, 1978


Infiltration

Infiltration

Figure from Chernicoff and Fox, 1997


Flow abstractions2

Infiltration

Movement of water into the subsurface during an event.

Primary abstraction to flow.

Extremely complicated process controlled by multiple parameters.

Parameters controlling infiltration

Physical properties of soil/bedrock.

Nature of vegetation.

Antecedent moisture condition.

Slope of ground surface.

Rainfall characteristics

Flow Abstractions


Drainage basin

From Ritter et al., 1995


Drainage basin

From Ritter et al., 1995


Drainage basin

Elevated Groundwater

Table and Steeper Gradients

Subsurface storm Flow = Elevated G.W.T. + Interflow


Saturated overland flow

Saturated Overland Flow

Saturated Overland Flow = Direct Precip. + Return Flow

From Ritter et al., 1995


Variable source concept

Variable Source Concept

From Ritter et al., 1995


Measurement of stream discharge

Measurement of Stream Discharge

From Ritter et al., 1995


Rating curve

Rating Curve

From Ritter et al., 1995


Hydrograph

Hydrograph

McCuen, 1989


Hydrograph responses

Flashy: Rapid Response to rainfall event.

Sluggish: Slow response to rainfall event.

Peak Q is usually related to rate of response.

Controlling Factors

Geologic Materials

Vegetation/Land-use

Basin Morphometry

Basin Size

Basin Shape

Relief

Drainage Network characteristics

Hydrograph Responses


Discharge vs basin area

Discharge vs Basin Area

From Ritter et al., 1995


Discharge per unit basin area

Discharge per Unit Basin Area

From Ritter et al., 1995


Drainage basin

From Ritter et al., 1995


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