Overview of tourism industry environmental management efforts
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Overview of Tourism Industry Environmental Management Efforts. Harvard E -118 December 1, 2011. Accommodations, Tour Operations, Airports, Aviation, Cruise Lines, Destinations. Ecolodge Critera. - The Nature Conservancy. has minimal impact on the natural and cultural surroundings,

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Overview of Tourism Industry Environmental Management Efforts

Harvard E -118

December 1, 2011

Accommodations, Tour Operations, Airports, Aviation, Cruise Lines, Destinations


- The Nature Conservancy

  • has minimal impact on the natural and cultural surroundings,

  • fits into the physical and cultural environments through attention to design and landscaping as well as building materials,

  • utilizes “green” technologies that provide sustainable means of water acquisition, safe disposal of solid waste and sewage and use of renewable energy sources,

  • involves local communities in the ecolodge development and seeks to bring about economic and educational benefits to communities, and

  • integrates environmental and cultural education into the visitor’s experience.

Applicability of Ecolodge Development to Mainstream Tourism

  • Requirements to consider the landscape

  • To conserve natural resources and deliver natural products

  • To deliver maximum guest satisfaction via respect for the surroundings

  • To power and present via alternative and local sources

Multidisciplinary Approach

  • Civil engineering

    • Development of site according to standards

  • Environmental engineering

    • Preserving water quality and ecology

  • Architecture

    • Form, function, respect for nature, art

  • Landscape architecture

    • Respect and preservation for existing landscape

  • Understanding the steps to achieve sustainable outcomes

    • Site Analysis

    • Infrastructure Requirements

    • Vehicle and Pedestrian Circulation

    • Landscape and Gardens

    • Central Laundry & Kitchen/ Restaurants

    • Lighting and water features

    • Water supply and treatment

    • Waste water treatment and reclamation

Moving Mainstream

  • Recognition of “Non-Financial component of Corporate Success

    • Management of “externalities” that are less and less external

      • Waste, Toxicity, Poverty, Food, Water, Energy, Climate Change

    • Importance of investment community

Wyndham’s Seven Mile Beach Hotel in Tasmania

Sustainable competitive advantage

  • Companies with business models that revolve around green practices will have the strongest opportunity of achieving a Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Ernst & Young 2008

  • Hotel Supply Chain Models

    • Owned

    • Managed

    • Leased

    • Franchises

    • Timeshare

    • Rental Exchange

Next Generation SolutionsLowering Impact of Hotel Facilities

  • Better site planning

  • Conservation of all natural resources

  • Re-use of all resources possible

  • Alternative energy

  • Internal management green teams

  • Greening the supply chain approaches

Sustainability at Lapa Rios http://www.laparios.com/lapgoal.htm

Current Status for Hotel Industry in US

  • AH&LA Green Resource Center


  • Level 1

    • Best Practice

    • Ecoeducation

    • Ecosuppliers

  • Level 2

    • Benchmarking

      • Tracking energy and water consumption

      • Utility Rebates

      • Free EPA programs

    • Level 3

      • Certification & State Programs

Tour Operators & Travel Agents

  • Tour Operators & Agents Bear a Unique Responsibility as they are the primary vendors of product worldwide

    • They face difficult challenges as they do not own many of the assets they represent or even license or franchise them

  • Components of Management of Sustainability for Operators & Agents

    • Marketing, PR, Community Relations, Industry Advocacy

    • Products & Services

    • Employee Education

    • Supply Chain Management

    • Asset Management – Physical Assets

    • Benchmarking and Measuring and Reporting

Next generation for Tour Operators

  • Booking tools which integrate “levels of green” into product descriptions

  • Integration of Carbon Data in tour decision making tool kits

  • Investing in destinations

Building out into the responsible travel marketplace

  • Working with buyers seeking responsible, sustainable product

  • Developing responsible travel policy and creating programs that favor responsible suppliers

Responsible tourism criteria

  • Creating a flexible market ready approach

  • Developing criteria that allow entry of small and microenterprises into the marketplace

Tour Operator Sustainability

  • Bringing together the collective experiences of tour operators

  • Working through national trade associations

  • International standard

  • Training

  • Supplier Assessment

Supply Chain Management

Tour operator sustainability

  • Other impacts of tour components

    • Method of transport

    • Type of excursions and activities

    • Selection of food and beverage

Tour Operator Sustainability

  • Increasing environmental benefits, e.g.

    • Avoiding sites with excessive pressure

    • Choosing rail or transport with lower CO2 emissions

      • Energy planning which seeks to lower total emissions of company transport

Tour Operator Sustainability

  • Tour Operator Engagement with Destinations

    • Influencing planning and management

    • Developing investment strategies for local green suppliers

    • Supporting community based approaches

    • Training local staff

    • Developing response to climate change & emergencies

    • Supporting basic human needs

    • Investing in environmental sustainability

    • Supporting local small businesses

Airport Green Management

Air Quality Improvement

Water Quality Control

Solid Waste Recycling

Noise Mitigation

Ecological Protection

Energy Efficiency

Renewable Energy

Green Buildings

Carbon Footprint / Climate Action Plan

Climate Adaptation

SFO Summary of Planned/ Ongoing GHG Emission Offset/Mitigation Measures

Air Transportation

  • Large agenda to reduce waste, energy, fuel, and carbon dioxide

    • Travel & Tourism causes 5% of all carbon emissions worldwide

      • 2% of this attributable to aviation

      • Growth to 15-20% of carbon emissions from aviation by 2050– see next slide

  • Fuel savings

  • Optimizing aircraft

    • Weight

    • Design

    • Fuels

    • Trim

  • Flight planning systems allowing airlines to operate efficiently

  • Emissions management systems for tracking, reporting, forecasting

Aviation’s contribution to CO2 emissions

Next generation approaches to Air Transport Management

  • Air passenger taxes in Europe

  • Carbon trading in Europe from 2012 forward

    • EU scheme to be implemented which would have global implications

  • Mandatory reductions in emissions in Europe

    • Can purchase European Aviation Allowances

    • Or Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs) through UN approved Clean Development Mechanisms (CDMs)

Next generation approaches

  • The Boeing 787 aircraft – targeted for delivery in early 2011 just experienced delays due to a fire during testing

    • Lower NoX

    • GEnX engines

    • Smooth wing technology, and state of the art raked tip

    • Composite Materials – lighter weight aircraft

    • Direct service – fewer take offs and landings

  • Thomson Airways, world’s largest charter airline, will become the Euro launch customer for the B787 with 12 deliveries

  • Thomson Airways is owned by TUI Travel

Cruise Ship Management

2009 IMO Emission Control Area (ECA)

Covering North America will require

Reduced sulfur and NoX and particulates

  • Energy and Air Emissions

    • Royal Caribbean

      • Reducing Fuel consumption by 2.5%

      • Reducing Green house gas footprint by 33% by 2015

      • Testing scrubbers but all ships still use high sulfur fuels

  • Water & Waste Water

    • Royal Caribbean

      • Oily bilge water protection system fleet wide

      • 15 parts per million permitted, discharge allowed 12 miles out

      • CLIA members working towards 2ppm

  • Defining SoX Emission Control Areas (SECAs)

    • Mediterranean Sea may be designated by EU

Cruise Ship Management

  • Waste & Chemical Management

    • Royal Caribbean

      • Recycling 30% of all waste in U.S. ports

      • Realized 44% reduction in hazardous waste in 2008, 25% reduction in 2009

  • CLIA Policy for Members

    • Zero trash discharge at sea

    • Food pulped and discharged “well away from shore”

    • On shore facilities for recycling remain limited in destinations

Cruise Destination Management

  • Supporting concept of Destination Stewardship, new standards being released by GSTC

  • Work closely with constituents in ports

  • Using funds from corporate foundations to support local conservation efforts

  • Achilles heal of industry

    • Economy of scale so great, industry capable of heavy pressure on local governments and business

    • Local governments and businesses largely “tow the line”

    • Cruise industry can easily move to other sites and often do so if not accommodated

Next generation Cruise Management

  • Improved emissions via new scrubbers

  • Reduced waste

    • More investment in local recycling facilities would be recommended

  • Improved management of waste water

  • More research on impacts of food waste thrown off board

  • Increasing success with energy efficiency

    • Management of ships in ports, e.g. engines

  • Need for real investment in local destinations that is substantial

    • Creation of destination stewardship fund and/or destination stewardship outside monitoring bodies to advise and rate cruise lines, that are independent of cruise profit driven approaches


  • Destination stewardship is the frontier of sustainable tourism

    • There are metrics in the form of indicators which are rarely applied and difficult to coordinate

Destinations Next Steps

  • Creation of urban planning systems for tourism

  • Creation of rural planning systems for tourism

  • Implementation of knowledge transfer of best land-use planning systems

  • Prevention of incremental loss of destination authenticity

    • Problem of lack of understanding of how destinations actually develop

    • Need for knowledge transfer before too many entrenched interests prevent enlightened policies

Destination Next Steps

  • Development of Knowledge Management Systems & Tools for Evaluation of Destination Status

    • Enable Governments to make more informed decisions

    • Enable more informed dialog among stakeholders with government

Ambergris Caye, Belize

20 years ago had 3-4 hotels

Destination next steps:Integrated Tracking of Key Topics

  • Topic Areas

  • Air Quality

  • Land Use

  • Biodiversity

  • Land Coverage

  • Crime & Safety

  • Local Economy

  • Demographics

  • Municipal Solid Waste

  • Education

  • Real Estate Development

  • Electricity

  • Sewage

  • Fishing

  • Town Council

  • Health

  • Water

  • Hotel Industry

  • Water-Based Tourism

  • Road Infrastructure

Next steps destinations

  • Economic Capacity to Reinvest in Cultural and Environmental Capital

  • Political capacity to respond to local destination stewardship goals

Review and Benchmarking

  • Stakeholder systems are known to work best for destination management

    • Limits of Acceptable Change

    • Mapping

    • Benchmarking will be critical

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