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Industrial Revolution. Scientific Revolution. The Enlightenment. Agricultural Revolution. Population Explosion. Industrial Revolution. Scientific Revolution. Scientific Method Observation and Experimentation, turned into scientific laws Newton, Copernicus . The Enlightenment.

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Scientific Revolution

The Enlightenment

Agricultural Revolution

Population Explosion

Industrial Revolution

scientific revolution
Scientific Revolution
  • Scientific Method
  • Observation and Experimentation, turned into scientific laws
  • Newton, Copernicus
the enlightenment
The Enlightenment
  • Apply scientific ideas to society.
  • John Locke- Natural Rights
  • Life, Liberty, Property
  • Challenge new ideas
agricultural revolution
Agricultural Revolution
  • Improved methods of farming
  • Combined smaller fields to larger ones
  • Seed drill- Jethro Tull, deposited seeds in rows
  • Enclosure Movement- fencing off land, formerly shared by peasant farmers, replaced strips fields with larger fields
  • Needed fewer people to work them, many farmers unemployed, migrated to cities
population explosion
Population Explosion
  • Declining death rates
  • Women were able to eat better, became healthier, babies were stronger and lived through childhood
  • Deadly diseases like Bubonic plague faded away
  • Better hygiene and sanitation

Capital Supportive Human Demand Natural New

Government Resources Resources Technology

Industrial Revolution

New Inventions Factories Growth of Cities Faster Transportation

and Communication

  • Movement of people to the cities
  • Towns grew into cities

Example: Manchester grew from 17,000 in

the 1750’s to 70,000 by 1800.

  •  The industrial cities were filthy, dark, polluted and eventually became known as overcrowded slums
the factory system
The factory System
  • Factory- Building where many people work with machines to produce goods instead of having them made at home
  • Rigid discipline
  • Rigid schedule-set by factory whistle
  • Long hours (12-16hrs)
  • Workers suffered accidents
  • Air full of coal and lint
women in factories
Women in Factories
  • Paid less than men
  • “Easier” to control

and manage

  • Family life suffered,

Rise in orphanages

child labor
Child Labor
  • Workers as young as 5 years old
  • Little hands and bodies could “squeeze” into small places
  • Children often helped to support their families, while orphans however, worked for food.
  • Kids were mistreated for not doing their work
  • Most children never attended school

Capitalism- is an economic system that is based on private ownership of the means of production and the creation of goods or services for profit.

adam smith
Adam Smith
  • Prophet of laissez-faire (government does not interfere with business) economics
  • Believed that a free market- the unregulated exchange of goods and services- would eventually help everyone, not just the rich
  • Free market would produce more goods at lower prices, making them affordable to everyone
  • Businesses follow the law of supply and demand and supply what people want or go bankrupt
supply and demand
Supply and demand
  • Investors constantly come up with new products to benefit people and make money
  • Supporters of the free enterprise capitalism pointed to the success of the industrial age, in which government played no part
views on the poor
Views on the Poor
  • Thomas Malthus
    • Poor people will have as many children as they can feed, they caused their own suffering
  • David Ricardo
    • Iron law of wages- the poor cause their own suffering

Utilitarianism- Government should intervene only to benefit the most citizens

    • Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill believe people should have more rights
      • Women should vote
      • Poor should get help from the government
  • Founder: Robert Owen
  • Basic Belief: Factories work for the benefit of all people, the people control the means of production
  • Key Ideas:
    • Industries would be run for the benefit of all people (fair pay, no child labor)
    • Wanted governments to intervene to better conditions
    • Later socialists used increased voting and unions to better conditions
  • Luddites- Protestors that destroyed machines in resistance to the Industrial Revolution
    • Believed machines should be destroyed because they took the jobs of working men
      • Everything used to be made by hand

Named after the legendary Ned Ludd, who went around destroying machines that have taken the jobs that people once did


Government response

    • Luddites were hanged or sent to penal colonies in Australia
    • "Machine breaking” was subsequently made a capital crime
    • For years workers were forbidden to form labor unions to bargain for better pay and working conditions
    • Strikes were outlawed
  • Works by having workers negotiate together with the bosses (collective bargaining) or refusing to work (strikes)
  • Goals include better pay, safety, insurance and retirement benefits
scientific socialism
Scientific Socialism
  • In the 1840’s, Karl Marx a German philosopher developed theory of “Scientific Socialism”
    • Based on a scientific study of history
    • Was forced to leave Germany because of radical ideas and moved to Paris
      • Met fellow socialist Friedrich Engels, whose father owned a textile factory
communist manifesto
Communist Manifesto
  • 1848, Marx and Engels publish a pamphlet, “The Communist Manifesto”
    • Explained the theory of communism- a form of socialism that sees class struggle between employers and employees as inevitable
  • Marx stated that economics was the driving force in history and history was full of class struggles between the “haves” and the “have nots”

The “haves” have always owned the means of production and thus controlled society and all its wealth

  • In industrialized Europe, the “haves” are the bourgeoisie, or middle class
  • The “have nots” are the proletariat, or working class
    • This modern class struggle will pit the bourgeoisie against the proletariat

In the end he predicted, the proletariat would triumph and take control of the means of production and set up a classless communist society

    • The struggles of the past would end because wealth and power would be equally shared
  • At first ideas had little impact, in time they would have world wide effects
  • Western and Eastern European socialist parties will emerge
  • In early 1900’s, Russian socialists set up a communist “inspired government”
  • Many of Marx’s assumptions on which he based his theories were wrong
    • Predicted misery of the proletariat would start a revolution, instead by 1900, the standard of living for the working class improved
    • Predicted workers across the world would unite, instead nationalism won out over working class loyalty
      • Marxism will lose much of its appeal, people begin to feel strong ties to their own countries