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Industrial Revolution. Scientific Revolution. The Enlightenment. Agricultural Revolution. Population Explosion. Industrial Revolution. Scientific Revolution. Scientific Method Observation and Experimentation, turned into scientific laws Newton, Copernicus. The Enlightenment.

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Industrial Revolution

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Industrial Revolution

Scientific Revolution

The Enlightenment

Agricultural Revolution

Population Explosion

Industrial Revolution

Scientific Revolution

  • Scientific Method

  • Observation and Experimentation, turned into scientific laws

  • Newton, Copernicus

The Enlightenment

  • Apply scientific ideas to society.

  • John Locke- Natural Rights

  • Life, Liberty, Property

  • Challenge new ideas

Agricultural Revolution

  • Improved methods of farming

  • Combined smaller fields to larger ones

  • Seed drill- Jethro Tull, deposited seeds in rows

  • Enclosure Movement- fencing off land, formerly shared by peasant farmers, replaced strips fields with larger fields

  • Needed fewer people to work them, many farmers unemployed, migrated to cities

Population Explosion

  • Declining death rates

  • Women were able to eat better, became healthier, babies were stronger and lived through childhood

  • Deadly diseases like Bubonic plague faded away

  • Better hygiene and sanitation

Capital Supportive Human Demand Natural New

Government Resources Resources Technology

Industrial Revolution

New Inventions Factories Growth of Cities Faster Transportation

and Communication

The Factory System


  • Movement of people to the cities

  • Towns grew into cities

    Example: Manchester grew from 17,000 in

    the 1750’s to 70,000 by 1800.

  •  The industrial cities were filthy, dark, polluted and eventually became known as overcrowded slums


The factory System

  • Factory- Building where many people work with machines to produce goods instead of having them made at home

  • Rigid discipline

  • Rigid schedule-set by factory whistle

  • Long hours (12-16hrs)

  • Workers suffered accidents

  • Air full of coal and lint

Women in Factories

  • Paid less than men

  • “Easier” to control

    and manage

  • Family life suffered,

    Rise in orphanages

Child Labor

  • Workers as young as 5 years old

  • Little hands and bodies could “squeeze” into small places

  • Children often helped to support their families, while orphans however, worked for food.

  • Kids were mistreated for not doing their work

  • Most children never attended school


  • Capitalism- is an economic system that is based on private ownership of the means of production and the creation of goods or services for profit.

Adam Smith

  • Prophet of laissez-faire (government does not interfere with business) economics

  • Believed that a free market- the unregulated exchange of goods and services- would eventually help everyone, not just the rich

  • Free market would produce more goods at lower prices, making them affordable to everyone

  • Businesses follow the law of supply and demand and supply what people want or go bankrupt

Supply and demand

  • Investors constantly come up with new products to benefit people and make money

  • Supporters of the free enterprise capitalism pointed to the success of the industrial age, in which government played no part

Views on the Poor

  • Thomas Malthus

    • Poor people will have as many children as they can feed, they caused their own suffering

  • David Ricardo

    • Iron law of wages- the poor cause their own suffering

  • Utilitarianism- Government should intervene only to benefit the most citizens

    • Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill believe people should have more rights

      • Women should vote

      • Poor should get help from the government


  • Founder: Robert Owen

  • Basic Belief: Factories work for the benefit of all people, the people control the means of production

  • Key Ideas:

    • Industries would be run for the benefit of all people (fair pay, no child labor)

    • Wanted governments to intervene to better conditions

    • Later socialists used increased voting and unions to better conditions

Opposition to the Industrial Revolution


  • Luddites- Protestors that destroyed machines in resistance to the Industrial Revolution

    • Believed machines should be destroyed because they took the jobs of working men

      • Everything used to be made by hand

  • Named after the legendary Ned Ludd, who went around destroying machines that have taken the jobs that people once did

  • Government response

    • Luddites were hanged or sent to penal colonies in Australia

    • "Machine breaking” was subsequently made a capital crime

    • For years workers were forbidden to form labor unions to bargain for better pay and working conditions

    • Strikes were outlawed


  • Works by having workers negotiate together with the bosses (collective bargaining) or refusing to work (strikes)

  • Goals include better pay, safety, insurance and retirement benefits


Scientific Socialism

  • In the 1840’s, Karl Marx a German philosopher developed theory of “Scientific Socialism”

    • Based on a scientific study of history

    • Was forced to leave Germany because of radical ideas and moved to Paris

      • Met fellow socialist Friedrich Engels, whose father owned a textile factory

Communist Manifesto

  • 1848, Marx and Engels publish a pamphlet, “The Communist Manifesto”

    • Explained the theory of communism- a form of socialism that sees class struggle between employers and employees as inevitable


  • Marx stated that economics was the driving force in history and history was full of class struggles between the “haves” and the “have nots”

  • The “haves” have always owned the means of production and thus controlled society and all its wealth

  • In industrialized Europe, the “haves” are the bourgeoisie, or middle class

  • The “have nots” are the proletariat, or working class

    • This modern class struggle will pit the bourgeoisie against the proletariat

  • In the end he predicted, the proletariat would triumph and take control of the means of production and set up a classless communist society

    • The struggles of the past would end because wealth and power would be equally shared


  • At first ideas had little impact, in time they would have world wide effects

  • Western and Eastern European socialist parties will emerge

  • In early 1900’s, Russian socialists set up a communist “inspired government”


  • Many of Marx’s assumptions on which he based his theories were wrong

    • Predicted misery of the proletariat would start a revolution, instead by 1900, the standard of living for the working class improved

    • Predicted workers across the world would unite, instead nationalism won out over working class loyalty

      • Marxism will lose much of its appeal, people begin to feel strong ties to their own countries

How do the Smurfs resemble Communism?

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