Industrial revolution
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Industrial Revolution. Scientific Revolution. The Enlightenment. Agricultural Revolution. Population Explosion. Industrial Revolution. Scientific Revolution. Scientific Method Observation and Experimentation, turned into scientific laws Newton, Copernicus. The Enlightenment.

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Industrial Revolution

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Industrial revolution

Industrial Revolution


Industrial revolution

Scientific Revolution

The Enlightenment

Agricultural Revolution

Population Explosion

Industrial Revolution


Scientific revolution

Scientific Revolution

  • Scientific Method

  • Observation and Experimentation, turned into scientific laws

  • Newton, Copernicus


The enlightenment

The Enlightenment

  • Apply scientific ideas to society.

  • John Locke- Natural Rights

  • Life, Liberty, Property

  • Challenge new ideas


Agricultural revolution

Agricultural Revolution

  • Improved methods of farming

  • Combined smaller fields to larger ones

  • Seed drill- Jethro Tull, deposited seeds in rows

  • Enclosure Movement- fencing off land, formerly shared by peasant farmers, replaced strips fields with larger fields

  • Needed fewer people to work them, many farmers unemployed, migrated to cities


Population explosion

Population Explosion

  • Declining death rates

  • Women were able to eat better, became healthier, babies were stronger and lived through childhood

  • Deadly diseases like Bubonic plague faded away

  • Better hygiene and sanitation


Industrial revolution

Capital Supportive Human Demand Natural New

Government Resources Resources Technology

Industrial Revolution

New Inventions Factories Growth of Cities Faster Transportation

and Communication


Industrial revolution

The Factory System


Urbanization

Urbanization

  • Movement of people to the cities

  • Towns grew into cities

    Example: Manchester grew from 17,000 in

    the 1750’s to 70,000 by 1800.

  •  The industrial cities were filthy, dark, polluted and eventually became known as overcrowded slums

  • LIFE ROTATED AROUND THE FACTORY


The factory system

The factory System

  • Factory- Building where many people work with machines to produce goods instead of having them made at home

  • Rigid discipline

  • Rigid schedule-set by factory whistle

  • Long hours (12-16hrs)

  • Workers suffered accidents

  • Air full of coal and lint


Women in factories

Women in Factories

  • Paid less than men

  • “Easier” to control

    and manage

  • Family life suffered,

    Rise in orphanages


Child labor

Child Labor

  • Workers as young as 5 years old

  • Little hands and bodies could “squeeze” into small places

  • Children often helped to support their families, while orphans however, worked for food.

  • Kids were mistreated for not doing their work

  • Most children never attended school


Capitalism

Capitalism


Industrial revolution

  • Capitalism- is an economic system that is based on private ownership of the means of production and the creation of goods or services for profit.


Adam smith

Adam Smith

  • Prophet of laissez-faire (government does not interfere with business) economics

  • Believed that a free market- the unregulated exchange of goods and services- would eventually help everyone, not just the rich

  • Free market would produce more goods at lower prices, making them affordable to everyone

  • Businesses follow the law of supply and demand and supply what people want or go bankrupt


Supply and demand

Supply and demand

  • Investors constantly come up with new products to benefit people and make money

  • Supporters of the free enterprise capitalism pointed to the success of the industrial age, in which government played no part


Views on the poor

Views on the Poor

  • Thomas Malthus

    • Poor people will have as many children as they can feed, they caused their own suffering

  • David Ricardo

    • Iron law of wages- the poor cause their own suffering


Industrial revolution

  • Utilitarianism- Government should intervene only to benefit the most citizens

    • Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill believe people should have more rights

      • Women should vote

      • Poor should get help from the government


Socialism

Socialism

  • Founder: Robert Owen

  • Basic Belief: Factories work for the benefit of all people, the people control the means of production

  • Key Ideas:

    • Industries would be run for the benefit of all people (fair pay, no child labor)

    • Wanted governments to intervene to better conditions

    • Later socialists used increased voting and unions to better conditions


Opposition to the industrial revolution

Opposition to the Industrial Revolution


Luddites

Luddites

  • Luddites- Protestors that destroyed machines in resistance to the Industrial Revolution

    • Believed machines should be destroyed because they took the jobs of working men

      • Everything used to be made by hand


Industrial revolution

  • Named after the legendary Ned Ludd, who went around destroying machines that have taken the jobs that people once did


Industrial revolution

  • Government response

    • Luddites were hanged or sent to penal colonies in Australia

    • "Machine breaking” was subsequently made a capital crime

    • For years workers were forbidden to form labor unions to bargain for better pay and working conditions

    • Strikes were outlawed


Unions

Unions

  • Works by having workers negotiate together with the bosses (collective bargaining) or refusing to work (strikes)

  • Goals include better pay, safety, insurance and retirement benefits


Communism

Communism


Scientific socialism

Scientific Socialism

  • In the 1840’s, Karl Marx a German philosopher developed theory of “Scientific Socialism”

    • Based on a scientific study of history

    • Was forced to leave Germany because of radical ideas and moved to Paris

      • Met fellow socialist Friedrich Engels, whose father owned a textile factory


Communist manifesto

Communist Manifesto

  • 1848, Marx and Engels publish a pamphlet, “The Communist Manifesto”

    • Explained the theory of communism- a form of socialism that sees class struggle between employers and employees as inevitable


Marxism

Marxism

  • Marx stated that economics was the driving force in history and history was full of class struggles between the “haves” and the “have nots”


Industrial revolution

  • The “haves” have always owned the means of production and thus controlled society and all its wealth

  • In industrialized Europe, the “haves” are the bourgeoisie, or middle class

  • The “have nots” are the proletariat, or working class

    • This modern class struggle will pit the bourgeoisie against the proletariat


Industrial revolution

  • In the end he predicted, the proletariat would triumph and take control of the means of production and set up a classless communist society

    • The struggles of the past would end because wealth and power would be equally shared


Impact

Impact

  • At first ideas had little impact, in time they would have world wide effects

  • Western and Eastern European socialist parties will emerge

  • In early 1900’s, Russian socialists set up a communist “inspired government”


Weakness

Weakness

  • Many of Marx’s assumptions on which he based his theories were wrong

    • Predicted misery of the proletariat would start a revolution, instead by 1900, the standard of living for the working class improved

    • Predicted workers across the world would unite, instead nationalism won out over working class loyalty

      • Marxism will lose much of its appeal, people begin to feel strong ties to their own countries


How do the smurfs resemble communism

How do the Smurfs resemble Communism?

  • 1)

  • 2)

  • 3)

  • 4)

  • 5)

  • 6)


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