The Evolution of Seed Plants

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The Evolution of Seed Plants

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1. The Evolution of Seed Plants

2. Ancestry of Seed Plants gymnosperms naked seed plants angiosperms flowering plants

4. Reproductive Adaptations reduced gametophyte generation independent of water for reproduction all are heterosporous seeds for dispersal of offspring

7. Seed product of fertilization between female and male gametophyte seed multicellular integument embryo packaged in protective coat

8. Pollen male gametophyte microsporangia produce pollen utilize wind instead of water for dispersion

9. Female Gametophyte contains 8 nuclei, one of which will become the zygote when fertilized retained in the megasporangium

10. Gymnosperms “naked seed” lack ovaries for seed development Phylum Cycadophyta Phylum Ginkgophyta Phylum Gnetophyta Phylum Coniferophyta

11. Phylum Cycadophyta resemble palms tropical and subtropical regions bear naked seeds on sporophylls

12. Phylum Ginkgophyta deciduous, fan shaped leaves fruit sold for food seed sold for medicinal purposes

13. Phylum Gnetophyta variety of habitats closely related to angiosperms herbal ecstasy

14. Phylum Pinophyta produce seeds in cones evergreen trees, needle-like or scale-like leaves many economic uses

16. Angiosperms flowering plants split into 2 groups: monocots eudicots

17. Xylem conifers possess tracheids conduct water structural support as well angiosperms have vessel elements water transport fibers for structure

18. Flowers reproduction 4 whorls of modified leaves: sepals petals stamens anther filament carpels stigma, style, and ovary

19. Flowers and Reproduction complete vs. incomplete flowers perfect vs. imperfect flowers monoecious vs. dioecious

20. Fruit functions in dispersal a mature ovary various shapes for dispersal

21. Angiosperm Life Cycle all heterosporous microspores pollen megaspores female gametophyte

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