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Future of UK winter oilseed rape production. James Clarke & Susan Twining ADAS UK Ltd. Prepared for: Crop Protection Association Agricultural Industries Confederation. July 2009. Key messages. Winter oilseed rape provides a major benefit to UK agriculture

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future of uk winter oilseed rape production

Future of UK winter oilseed rape production

James Clarke & Susan Twining

ADAS UK Ltd

Prepared for:

Crop Protection Association

Agricultural Industries Confederation

July 2009

key messages
Key messages
  • Winter oilseed rape provides a major benefit to UK agriculture
    • Major benefit to farmers’ rotations
    • Gross margin, spreads fixed costs and provides weed control
  • Alternatives will result in loss of profitability
    • Spring crops already viewed as less profitable and unacceptable options
  • Farmers and agronomists must act now to ensure this valuable crop is still available
    • Adopt best practice and participate in stewardship
    • Protect water from herbicides and other pesticides
contents

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Contents
  • UK Oilseed Rape Production
  • Threats to OSR pesticide availability
  • Impacts
    • On farming
    • On trading
    • On the environment
uk oilseed rape production

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UK oilseed rape production
  • Area and importance
  • Prices
  • Uses
trends in uk osr area winter spring

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800

700

600

500

Total OSR area (thousand ha)

400

300

200

100

0

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

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1999

2000

2001

2002

2009

2003

2008

1984

1985

1986

1987

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1989

1990

1991

2004

2005

2006

2007

Year

Trends in UK OSR area (winter & spring)

Source: Defra statistics

winter spring split 2004 2009

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Winter / Spring split 2004-2009

Source: Defra statistics

slide11

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Source:HGCA

osr yield trends

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4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

Yield (tonnes / ha)

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

Year

OSR yield trends

Source: Defra statistics

uk oilseed production and prices

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UK oilseed production and prices

Source: Defra statistics

uk oilseed production and prices1

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UK oilseed production and prices

Source: Defra statistics

oilseed rape and pesticides

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Oilseed rape and pesticides
  • Pesticide use
  • Threats to pesticide availability
threats to pesticide availability

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Threats to pesticide availability
  • EU legislation
    • Thematic Strategy
      • Revision of 91/414/EEC
      • Achievement of Annex 1 listing by 2010
    • Water Framework Directive (WFD)
  • Resistance
  • Commercial pressures on existing and new products
    • Pesticide manufacturers
    • Food industry
oilseed rape active substances at risk

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Oilseed rape active substances at risk

carbendazim cyproconazole flusilazole glufosinate metconazole tebuconazole

cyproconazole

prochloraz

carbetamide

napropamide

propachlor

quinmerac

tau fluvalinate

zeta-cypermethrin

metaldehyde

carbetamide

clopyralid

glyphosate

metaldehyde

metazachlor

propyzamide

carbendazim

chlorothalonil

chlorpyriphos

insecticides

impacts

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Impacts
  • Farming
  • Trading
  • Biodiversity
impacts on farming

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Impacts on farming
  • Weed and pest control
  • Rotations
  • Margins
key losses 1 black grass control
WFD – propyzamide, carbetamide, metazachlor

Vital for control of black-grass

40% rape area affected

Major impact on yield (36% yield loss)

Equivalent to 280,000t loss production

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Key losses 1 – black-grass control
loss of black grass control key implications

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Loss of black-grass controlKey implications
  • OSR yields could be reduced by up to 1.2t/ha
    • Up to £390/ha in lost gross margin – 75%
      • Yield loss from competition, increased herbicide costs
  • Few alternative crops on heavy land
  • Rotational implications are even bigger
    • Additional cost in wheat - £300/ha
      • More ploughing, delayed sowing, yield loss, increased herbicide costs
  • Spread of work load and early entry for cereals lost

NB where black-grass is a problem

two hits are greater than one

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Two hits are greater than one!

Primary Loss – up to £390/ha from current OSR margins

Secondary Loss – up to £300/ha from winter cereal margins

NB where black-grass is a problem

key losses 2 slugs
WFD & Annex 1 listing – Metaldehyde

Already under scrutiny

Complete crop losses a possibility if lost

Typically 3.5% yield loss

Replacements (methiocarb) available – environmental & cost implications

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Key losses 2 - slugs
loss of slug control

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Loss of slug control
  • Average yields could be reduced by up to 0.2t/ha
  • Up to £60/ha in lost gross margin – 15%
  • Alternative methods are more expensive
other areas of concern

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Other areas of concern
  • Revision of 91/414/EEC – metconazole & tebuconazole
    • Used as PGRs as well as fungicides
    • Can provide additional 0.2 t/ha yield response in absence of disease.
    • On individual crops this could cause losses of £60/ha
alternative crops

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Alternative crops
  • Heavy land suited to winter cropping
  • Winter field beans
  • Spring cropping
  • Fallow
rotational implications
Main break crop in arable rotations

In black-grass areas provides cleaning crop

If black-grass herbicides lost & control reduced;

Less favourable in black-grass infested fields

Alternative break crops (beans, spring cropping or fallow) may be sought

Increase in amount of ploughing to bury weed seeds

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Rotational implications
impacts on uk trading

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Impacts on UK trading
  • Inputs
  • Outputs
  • Protein
  • Biodiesel
impacts on trading inputs

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Impacts on trading - inputs

Value Net change

  • Seed £21 million Redistribution
  • Pesticides £80 million Redistribution
  • Fertiliser £76 million £57 million
  • Based on switch to field beans and linseed
  • Switch to fallow would have larger impacts in all areas
impacts on trading outputs

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Impacts on trading - outputs

Value

  • Crop £400 million
  • Oil £480 million
  • Rape meal £110 million
impacts on the environment

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Impacts on the environment
  • Carbon emissions
  • Nitrogen
  • Biodiversity
carbon emissions

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Carbon Emissions
  • Emissions from;
    • Production of raw materials (fertilisers, pesticides, seed)
    • Fuel usage in transport of raw materials & final product
    • Fuel usage in tractors & other farm operations
    • Soils as a result of nitrogen application & residue incorporation
    • From disposal of waste (plastics & packaging)
carbon impacts of osr production

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Carbon impacts of OSR production
  • Large amounts of N applied
    • High emissions involved in production of N
    • N2O released as a result of application
    • Nitrogen approximately = 50% of total emissions
biodiversity

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Biodiversity
  • Nesting sites
    • reed bunting
  • Feeding on stubbles and crops
    • yellowhammer, linnet
  • But also good for pigeons!
summary winter oilseed rape has a

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Summary – winter oilseed rape has a…

Farming

  • Major benefit to farmers rotations
    • Gross margin, spreads fixed costs and provides weed control

Trade

  • Positive effects on UK balance of payments
  • Significant requirement for N and crop protection

Environment

  • Good crop cover in autumn to reduce nutrient leaching and soil erosion risks
  • Value to birds by providing feed and nest sites
future of uk winter oilseed rape production1

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Future of UK winter oilseed rape production

James Clarke & Susan Twining

ADAS UK Ltd

Prepared for:

Crop Protection Association

Agricultural Industries Confederation

July 2009

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