Unit 1 european colonization of america
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Unit 1: European Colonization of America. Lesson 3: Conquistadors. Conquistadors. Standards. Strand: History Topic: Colonization to Independence

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Unit 1: European Colonization of America

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Unit 1 european colonization of america

Unit 1:European Colonization of America

Lesson 3: Conquistadors


Conquistadors

Conquistadors


Standards

Standards

  • Strand: History

  • Topic: Colonization to Independence

  • European countries established colonies in North America as a means of increasing wealth and power. As the English colonies developed their own governments and economies, they resisted domination by the monarchy, rebelled and fought for independence.

  • Content Statement: 2

  • North America, originally inhabited by American Indians, was explored and colonized by Europeans for economic and religious reasons.


Essential question

Essential Question

  • What were the economic and religious reasons for Europeans (the Spanish) coming to North and South America?


Effects of the reconquista

Effects of the Reconquista

  • During the Reconquista in Spain, (fighting with the Moors of N. Africa) there was constant war.

    • This created a class of warriors that had little land or money.

  • When the Reconquista ended, these soldiers were out of work.

  • Many Spanish soldiers chose to move to the Americas to seek fortune and fame.


Conquistadores

Conquistadores

  • Conquistadores – Spanish soldiers who led military expeditions in the Americas.

  • Hernán Cortés – Spanish conquistador sent to present-day Mexico in 1519.


Unit 1 european colonization of america

  • He heard stories of a wealthy land ruled by King Moctezuma.

  • He wanted to find Moctezuma and capture him and his treasure in the name of the King of Spain.

  • Traveled with around 600 armed soldiers, 16 horses, and war dogs.


Kingdom of the aztec

Kingdom of the Aztec

  • Moctezuma II (aka Montezuma)- King of the Aztec Empire

    • Rich civilization was made up of millions of people with thousands of warriors.

    • While he had many warriors, his people had never seen horses and had no guns.


Cort s plan

Cortés’ Plan

  • Cortés hoped his superior weapons, horses, and war dogs would frighten the Aztecs and bring him victory.


Moctezuma s response

Moctezuma’s Response

  • Moctezuma sent Cortés gifts of gold and other valuables to try and keep him away from the Aztec capital Tenochtitlán.

  • The signs of wealth only encouraged Cortés and increased his greed.


Cort s and moctezuma

Cortés and Moctezuma

  • Moctezuma was friendly to the Spanish, but Cortés took him prisoner and captured the city.

  • The Aztec rebelled and fought back against the Spanish.

  • The outnumbered Spanish suffered heavy losses.

  • During the battle of Tenochtitlán, Moctezuma was wounded and died shortly after.


Unit 1 european colonization of america

  • The Spanish fought the Aztec for several months.

  • Cortés gathered thousands of soldiers from other American Indian groups and equipped his fleet with cannons.

  • The city was destroyed shortly after.

  • Cortés conquered a territory larger than Spain.


Effects on the aztec

Effects on the Aztec

  • After the capital fell, other towns soon fell to Cortés and his men.

  • Hundreds of thousands of Aztec also began to die from Spanish diseases such as smallpox.

  • These losses and the spread of disease led to the fall of the Aztec empire.


Francisco pizarro

Francisco Pizarro

  • News of Cortés’ success and fortune inspired other conquistadores.

  • Francisco Pizarro was a conquistador who heard of Cortés’ success and wanted to become rich and famous as well.

  • Pizarro heard rumors of golden cities in the mountains of South America.

  • In 1531, Pizarro landed with a small army on the coast of present-day Peru.


Pizarro and the inca

Pizarro and the Inca

  • Pizarro soon reached the Incan Empire.

  • It stretched from present-day Chile to Colombia.


Unit 1 european colonization of america

  • The Inca leader, Atahualpa (ah-ta-wall-pa) heard about Pizarro and his men but he was not afraid

    • Pizarro only had around 200 men compared to the thousands of the Inca


Factors against the inca

Factors against the Inca

  • The Inca could not compete with the Spanish invaders’ swords and guns

  • Smallpox also killed tens of thousands of Inca

  • The Inca also were involved in a civil war with forces led by Atahualpa’s half-brother.


Fall of the inca

Fall of the Inca

  • Pizarro arranged a meeting with Atahualpa.

  • Pizarro lured Atahualpa and his men to the feast, and then opened fire on the unarmed Inca.

  • He then kidnapped Atahualpa and tried to force him to convert to Christianity.


Cont d

Cont’d

  • While holding him captive, Pizarro made plans to gain power over the Inca

  • He then ransomed Atahualpa for Incan gold and silver

  • For Atahualpa’s safe return, the Inca delivered 24 tons of gold and silver to Pizarro.

  • Instead of freeing him, Pizarro killed Atahualpa.

  • Pizarro then joined with several Inca rebel leaders, and eventually conquered the Inca Empire.


Background

Background

  • Conquistadors had conquered a huge territory for Spain.

  • After mid 1500’s, Spain’s American empire was larger than that of any other European nation.

  • Spain ran into the problem of trying to control an empire across the Atlantic ocean


Spanish empire

Spanish Empire

  • Spain ruled its American empire through a system of royal officials.

  • The Council of the Indies was formed to govern the Americas from Spain

    • The Council appointed two viceroys

      • The Viceroyalty of Peru

        • Most of South America

      • The Viceroyalty of New Spain

        • Central America and Mexico


Spanish empire1

Spanish Empire

  • Most of the local officials were not carefully watched

    • The empire was so large it was difficult to oversee everything that happened.

  • The people in Spanish America lived in the old Aztec and Inca Empires

  • These lands were full with gold and silver mines

    • This gold and silver would be shipped back to Spain


Ruling new spain

Ruling New Spain

  • There were three kinds of settlements in New Spain

    • Pueblos - trading posts and centers of government

      • Formed on the sites of American Indian villages

    • Missions – Religious community built around a church

      • Used to convert local American Indians to Catholicism

    • Presidios – Military forts

      • Used to protect the towns and missions


Ruling new spain1

Ruling New Spain

  • Orders from King Phillip II of Spain also declared that Christianity should be spread through the Native population

    • The natives should also be taught Spanish customs and ways of life.


Life in new spain

Life in New Spain

  • Many settlers relied heavily on the labor of American Indians

  • Spain established the encomienda

    (en-com-e-enda) system

    • This gave Spanish settlers the right to tax local American Indians or to make them work

    • In exchange, these settlers were to protect and teach local American Indians


Life in new spain1

Life in New Spain

  • The settlers also were expected to convert the native Americans to Christianity

  • The native Americans were treated like slaves, being forced to grow crops, work in mines, and herd cattle

  • Many of the native Americans died because of harsh working conditions

  • The natives also were continuing to die because of Spanish disease.

  • In response to these deaths, the Spanish started to bring in enslaved Africans in order to work on plantations.


Colonial society social classes

Colonial Society/Social Classes

  • By 1650 the Spanish Empire in America contained between 3 and 4 million people

    • American Indians made up about 80% of the population

  • Spanish law divided society into classes based on birthplace and race


Social classes highest to lowest

Social Classes- highest to lowest

  • Peninsulares- were white Spaniards born in Spain

    • Held the highest government offices in New Spain

  • Criollos(cree -o-yo-s)– people born in the Americas to Spanish parents

  • Mestizos – Had both Spanish and American Indian parents

    • Often worked for criollos as laborers or craftspeople

    • Largest group of people of European descent

  • American Indians had only limited legal protection

  • Enslaved Africans had little or no legal protection


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