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Introduction . Grape is an important commercial fruit crop in India. It is plagued by several pests, which cause considerable damage to this economically important crop.

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Introduction

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Introduction

Introduction

  • Grape is an important commercial fruit crop in India. It is plagued by several pests, which cause considerable damage to this economically important crop.

  • Among them, the stem borer is the most serious. Earlier, this pest was considered to be a problem only in old and neglected vineyards.

  • However, in recent years, severe incidence of this pest has been observed in even one year old gardens.

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Grapevine stem borer coelosterna scabrator cerambycidae coleoptera

Grapevine Stem Borer, CoelosternascabratorCerambycidae: Coleoptera

  • The insect is a borer, the grub of which bores in to stem and branches and causes drying and withering of affected branches.

  • Initially reddish sap oozes from wounds, chewed particles of wood are seen on the ground just below the site of damage

  • The adult beetles start emerging from the vines during July to September by making a round hole on the vine. Female beetles make conspicuous slits on the bark of the trunk and arms of the vine.


Identification of the pest

Identification of the pest

  • An adult beetle is about 4 cm long and dull yellow with minute spots.

  • Capsule shaped eggs are laid singly in each of the slits and the slits are covered with a hard gummy substance.

  • Newly hatched flat-headed cream coloured grubs burrow into the trunk or arms and feed inside and make them hollow.

  • They remain inside the vine up to May. Thereafter, they pupate inside the tunnel made in the vine.

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Nature of damage

Nature of damage

  • Presence of saw dust like substance under the vine indicates the damage done by the grub. Damaged vines get weakened and growth gets affected.

  • The maturity of berries is also delayed which ultimately affects the grape production in terms of both yield and quality.

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Management

Management

  • Hand picking of adults during July to September.

  • Destruction of eggs or first instar grubs in the slits during July - September by removing the slit portion with the help of a sharp knife.

  • Removal of loose bark in pre monsoon period, later painting bark with lindane suspension is recommended.

  • Applying dichlorvos in the holes and closing it with mud or placing half tablet of alumunium phosphide in to the hole and closing it.

  • Spraying of endosulfan 0.07 per cent in 2ml of water to kill adults in case of severe infestation.


Grapevine stem girdler sthenias grisator cerambycidae coleoptera

GRAPEVINE STEM GIRDLERStheniasgrisatorCerambycidae: Coleoptera

  • Besides grapevine, this insect also infests apple, citrus, mango.

  • The adult beetles girdle around the main stem 15 cm above the ground level at night.

  • During the day the adults hide on the lower side of the leaves or under the forking of the branches, but actively move about at night avoiding the light.

Courtesy:

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Identification of the pest1

Identification of the pest

  • Adult is a medium sized, stout beetle, grey coloured with a white spot in the center of each elytra.

  • Grub - Head is dark brown colour, pair of strong mandibles.

  • The emerging grub tunnels in to the wood and completes its life cycle within the stem.

  • Pupation takes place within the tunnel.

Adult


Nature of damage1

Nature of damage

  • Adult beetle girdles (ringing) the vine as a pre – ovipositional operation resulting in drying up of regions beyond the cut.

  • The adult beetle lays eggs in the girdled portion. After the hatching of the eggs the grubs tunnel into the dry wood.

  • Girdling results in considerable damage to the plant.

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Cane girdler injury


Management1

Management

  • Remove loose bark at the time of pruning to prevent egg laying.

  • Collect and destroy damaged plant parts.

  • Swab trunk with carbaryl 50 WP 2g/ lit.

  • A piece of cloth is soaked in an insecticide solution like chlorpyrifos and then wrapped around the stem.

  • Spray application of any of the following insecticides :

    phosalone 35 EC 0.07% or quinalphos 25 EC 0.05% carbaryl 50 WP  0.1%, first round immediately after pruning and repeat it 2-3 times.


Lets sum up

Lets sum up

  • Grape is an important commercial fruit crop in India. It is plagued by several pests, which cause considerable damage to this economically important crop.

  • The grape vine stem borer is a borer, the grub of which bores in to stem and branches and causes drying and withering of affected branches.

  • Adult stem gridler beetle girdles (ringing) the vine as a pre – ovipositional operation resulting in drying up of regions beyond the cut.

  • Regular monitoring is necessary to detect early infestations of insect pests and also to adopt proper control measures.


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