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Introducing 380 cSt HVFO. Fuel Specifications. Economics. 380 cSt : Rs 15309.83/MT 180 cSt : Rs 15864.83/MT Gain = Rs 555/MT Specific Heat =0.450 Kcal/Kg deg C For Max 25 deg C = 0.450X25X1000 860 X0.9 = 15 Units

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economics
Economics
  • 380 cSt : Rs 15309.83/MT
  • 180 cSt : Rs 15864.83/MT

Gain = Rs 555/MT

Specific Heat =0.450 Kcal/Kg deg C

For Max 25 deg C =0.450X25X1000

860 X0.9

= 15 Units

Loss = Rs 45/- per MT

Net Gain =Rs 510 per MT

d g set
D G Set
  • Type of Engine : 12V48/60
  • Engine Output/Capacity :11.81 MW
  • Make :Man B&W,Germany
  • RPM:500
  • No of Cylinders :12
  • Cylinder Bore :48 cm
  • Stroke :60 cm
tank farm for d g set
Tank Farm for D G Set
  • MST : 850 KL( Out Going 55 deg C/Return Line 85 deg C),Water & Sludge drainage ??
  • Day Tank :100 KL (120 deg C,Steam heated)
  • Electrical Heaters available
  • More Heat may be generated from WHR Boiler
tank farm for boilers
Tank Farm for Boilers
  • MST :500 KL (60 deg C)
  • Day Tank :10 KL (85 to 90 deg C)
  • 12 KW Electrical heating
refinery

Gas

Naphta

Reforming

AD

Gasolines

Kerosene

Diesel oils

Heavy fuels SR

1

FCC

Gasolines

VD

Gasolines

Kero,Diesel

Hydrocr.

Visbreak.

Heavy fuels

2

H2, no Heavy

Fuels

DA

Coking

4

Asphalts

Heavy fuels

3

REFINERY
slide13

ARABIAN

HEAVY

ARABIAN

LIGHT

NIGERIAN

BONNY

Viscosity,20°C

% asphaltenes

Gasoline (C5-80°)

Heavy gasoline (80-160°)

Kerosene (160-250°)

Middle distillate (250-300°)

Heavy distillate (300-400°)

Residue (400 +)

35.8

5.8

4.09

9.05

12.58

14.12

7.51

50.42

10.2

0.93

5.56

12.02

15.5

17.19

8.72

38.71

11.2

0.08

5.06

15.0

9.32

25.2

44.6

FRACTIONS FROM 3 DIFFERENT CRUDES

slide14

Arabian

light

Arabian

heavy

Ekofisk

Nigeria

light

Basrah

heavy

Boscan

Ural

Viscosity,20 °C,cSt

Sulfur,%

Vanadium, ppm

Nickel, ppm

Asphaltenes, %

Conradson carbon,%

9.2

1.8

15

5

0.7

5.1

40

2.8

30

10

2.7

10

0.12

< 1

1.4

0.88

6.7

0.11

2

6

0.08

0.86

57

3.58

54

22

8.3

250000

5.2

1200

100

10.8

16.4

12.5

1.8

65

20

2.7

CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME CRUDE OILS

slide15

LCO

FCC

ATMOSPHERIC

DISTILLATION

UNIT

CRUDE OIL

HCO

VACUUM

DISTILLATION

UNIT

VISBREAKER

RESIDUE

the making of 380 cst
Simple Refinery with Atmospheric Distillation

Atmospheric Residue +Gasoil Fraction

Complex Refinery with Catalytic Cracking & Visbreaking

Visbroken Residue + HCO + LCO

The making of 380 cSt
slide19

Viscosity 380 cSt

  • VISCOSITY - DETERMINES INJECTION AND TRANSFER TEMPERATURES
  • NEED TO IDENTIFY IF THERE IS A NEED FOR NEW INJECTION TEMPERATURE
    • TYPE OF UTILITY ( FURNACE/BOILER/D.G)
    • OPTIMIMU VISCOSITY AT BURNER
slide20

DECIDE THE INJECTION TEMPERATURES…………

FUEL INJ VISC INJ VISC

13 CST 17 CST

120 100 91

160 112 104

170 115 107

180 119 109

200 121 111

220 123 113

240 125 116

260 128 118

280 129 119

300 130 120

320 131 121

340 132 122

360 133 123

380 134 124

there is a need to identify transfer temperatures if
THERE IS A NEED TO IDENTIFY TRANSFER TEMPERATURES IF ……………….
  • Fuel Oil is cleaned with purifiers /Clarifiers
    • Transfer temperature of 98 deg C
    • Gravity Disc
    • Flow rate

-Automatically induced cleaning intervals ,review cleaning intervals

transportation
Transportation
  • The regular tankers with PTO pump & (heating facility in winters)??
slide23

STORAGE

  • Storage tank :380 cSt may be stored in the current FO tanks.The storage temperature should be above 10 deg C
  • Settling tank :Heavy Fuel Cleaning operations starts with settling of the product in tank at elevated temperatures(Around 80 deg C).Longer the settling period & More Number of Settling tanks the better
  • Removal of water & sludge from the settling tank prior to transfer
slide24

RESIDUE OR HEAVY FUEL OIL

MALTENES

"OIL"

SATURATED

AROMATIC

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

ASPHALTENES

"RESINS"

model of asphaltene molecule

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH

CH2

S

CH2

CH2

S

CH2

S

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH3

CH

CH3

N

CH2

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH

S

CH2

CH2

MODEL OF ASPHALTENE MOLECULE

CH3

O

CH2

CH3

CH3

CH2

S

CH3

CH2

CH3

CH3

slide26

FLOCULATED

DISPERSED AND STABLE

HEAVY FUEL OILS

Resins ensure seperation of heavy asphaltene molecules. Flocculated Asphaltene molecules tend to form sludge and settle at the bottom of the tank.

combustion mechanism
COMBUSTION MECHANISM

Atomisation

Vaporization

Viscosity

Distillate cuts

Ignition

C/H Ratio

Combustion

Distillate cuts

Density

Metals

Conradson Carbon

simple droplet combustion model
Simple droplet combustion model

EMISSIONS OF PARTICLES

SOOT

0.02 m

FUEL

DROPLET

CENOSPHERE

1 to 100 m

UNBURNT PARTICLES

FLAME FRONT

LIGHT GASEOUS FRACTIONS

SOLID ACCUMULATION

slide29

ALL OTHER PARAMETERS REMAIN IN THE NORMAL RANGE

  • CARBON RESIDUE - HIGH VALUES MAY GIVE DEPOSIT PROBLEMS
  • ASH - IF EXCESSIVE CAN GIVE FOULING DEPOSITS
  • VANADIUM AND SODIUM - POTENTIAL HIGH TEMPERATURE CORROSION CAN BE MINIMISED BY TEMPERATURE CONTROL AND MATERIALS SELECTION
  • ALUMINIUM AND SILICON - USUALLY PRESENT AS CATALYST FINES WHICH ARE ABRASIVE, CAN NORMALLY BE REDUCED TO AN ACCEPTABLE LEVEL BY A CENTRIFUGE
  • SULPHUR-SULPHUR OXIDES & TBN OF OIL
  • SEDIMENT & STABILITY - FUEL IS STABLE IF IT DOES NOT
  • BREAK DOWN GIVING HEAVY SEDIMENT
slide30

TEST SIGNIFICANCE

  • SPECIFIC ENERGY - NET VALUE FOR DIESEL AND GROSS VALUE FOR BOILERS, USUALLY CALCULATED FROM EMPIRICAL EQUATIONS
  • IGNITION QULAITY - RELATES TO PART OF THE COMBUSTION PROCESS
    • FOR RESIDUAL FUELS EMPIRICAL EQUATION FOR CCAI IS
    • CCAI = d - 81-141 log log (VK + 0.85)
    • d = DENSITY
    • VK = VISCOSITY
slide31

SPECIFIC ENERGY

Specific Energy (Gross) MJ/kg

Qg = (52.190 - 8.802 p2 10-6) [1 - 0.01 (x+y+s)] + 9.420 (0.01s)

Specific Energy (Net) MJ/kg

Qn = (46.704 - 8.802p210-6 + 3.167p10-3) [1-0.01(x+y+s)]

+ 0.01 (9.420s - 2.449x)

p = the density at 15 °C, kg/m³x = the water content, % (m/m)y = the ash content, % (m/m)s = the sulphur content, % m/m

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