Criminal justice organizations administration and management
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Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management. Chapter Eight Personnel Evaluation and Supervision. Learning Objectives. 220. Understand the difficulty in arriving at goal consensus within criminal justice agencies.

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Criminal justice organizations administration and management

Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management

Chapter Eight Personnel Evaluation and Supervision

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

220

  • Understand the difficulty in arriving at goal consensus within criminal justice agencies.

  • Comprehend the importance of organizational structure to employee supervision.

  • Know the differences between the human-service approach to employee supervision and the traditional model of employee supervision.

  • Understand the difficulty in implementing a human service model of employee supervision within criminal justice organizations.

  • Explain the guidelines for performance evaluation and supervision.

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


Criminal justice administration the search for goal consensus

Criminal Justice AdministrationThe Search for Goal Consensus

222

  • Criminal justice organizations are expected to provide multiple services to the community.

  • Components of the criminal justice system have multiple goals and functions.

  • In some cases these goals and functions contradict one another.

  • Fragmentation and diversity within the criminal justice system exacerbate this conflict.

  • Attempts to reorganize components of the criminal justice system (monolithically) to reduce goal conflict often fail.

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


Organizational structure employee evaluation and supervision

Organizational StructureEmployee Evaluation and Supervision

226

  • Organizational structure influences employee evaluation and supervision.

  • Differences exist because of organizational size, complexity, and mission.

  • Organizational diversity forces administrators to develop creative ways to evaluate and supervise employees.

  • Evaluation and supervision are also affected by budgets, differing goals, and the level of centralization.

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


Organizational structure employee evaluation and supervision1

Organizational StructureEmployee Evaluation and Supervision

226

  • Poor evaluation and supervision systems are characterized by:

    • Lack of clearly communicated rules, policies and procedures,

    • Inconsistent application of policies and procedures,

    • Failure to address problems and concerns,

    • Untimely professional feedback and disingenuous evaluation,

    • Inadequate supporting evidence and lack of documentation,

    • Inadequate training and lack of employee development, and

    • The tone set by management in the workplace.

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


Models of employee supervision

Models of Employee Supervision

228

  • Models of employee supervision have increased in recent years.

  • Public agencies actively seek improvement in employee supervision models by attempting to implement ideas from the private sector.

  • Some models have been developed within the criminal justice system.

  • Supervision models are highly influenced by motivation and job design.

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


Models of employee supervision the traditional model

Models of Employee SupervisionThe Traditional Model

229

  • Stresses a high degrees of centralization, formalization, complexity.

  • Includes the following elements

    • A hierarchy that includes;

      • An identifiable span of control

      • A precise unity of command, and

      • A clear delegation of authority

    • Rulification, and

    • Specialization.

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


Models of employee supervision the traditional model1

Models of Employee SupervisionThe Traditional Model

229

  • Key elements

    • Span of control – the appropriate number of employees a supervisor can supervise.

    • Unity of command – one person in charge of a situation and employee.

    • Delegation of authority – clearly defined tasks and responsibilities to maintain organizational integrity.

    • Rulification – emphasizes the importance of rules and regulations.

    • Specialization – the division of labor within the organization.

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


Models of employee supervision the human service model

Models of Employee SupervisionThe Human Service Model

231

  • Views supervision within the context of both individual and organizational goals.

  • Attempts to integrate employee goals into organizational goals.

  • First step is to determine what employees want.

  • Consistently, employees report wanting

    • To accomplish job tasks, and

    • To feel fulfilled with their roles.

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


Models of employee supervision the human service model1

Models of Employee SupervisionThe Human Service Model

231

  • Key elements

    • Employee ownership – when employees have more say in how the organization is managed.

    • Sharing of power – allows employees to delegate themselves.

  • Controversy

    • Human service activities make the officer’s job richer, more rewarding, and less stressful.

    • Criminal justice managers do not have the authority to share power with their employees. Somebody has to be in charge.

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


The human service model possible in criminal justice organizations

The Human Service ModelPossible in Criminal Justice Organizations?

236

  • Regardless of their approach to supervision, criminal justice agencies are evaluated on the basis of their overall performance.

  • Conflicting goals, constraints and finite resources tend to ‘force’ criminal justice agencies into the traditional model of supervision.

  • Accountability, equity, fiscal integrity and efficiency are possible obstacles to innovation in public agencies.

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


Performance evaluation and supervision guidelines

Performance Evaluation and SupervisionGuidelines

238

  • Methods for evaluating employee performance have been, are, and will always be controversial.

  • No single method works in all situations and organizational environments.

  • Instead, key issues and concepts can assist criminal justice administrators with the performance evaluation process.

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


Performance evaluation and supervision guidelines1

Performance Evaluation and SupervisionGuidelines

238

  • Yukl’s (1981) guidelines include

    • Defining job responsibilities

    • Assigning work, and

    • Setting performance goals.

  • Oettmeier and Wycoff’s (1998) model offers three levels of evaluation.

    • Individual performance

    • Team level

    • The organization’s ability to address problems

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


Performance evaluation and supervision guidelines2

Performance Evaluation and SupervisionGuidelines

238

  • 360 Evaluations

    • Recognizes the importance of multiple perspectives of employee performance.

    • Encourages input from all those (stakeholders) affected by an employee’s actions.

    • Sacramento PD uses four sources of information.

    • Other programs use as many as nine perspectives.

  • Comprehensive evaluations of officer performance enable insight into how successful the officer is at achieving organizational or unit goals.

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


Performance evaluation and supervision guidelines3

Performance Evaluation and SupervisionGuidelines

238

  • Supervision models are just as diverse.

  • Here again, there is no ‘one best way’.

  • Most supervisors organize work into four functions.

    • Traditional management

    • Communication

    • Human resource management

    • Networking

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


Performance evaluation and supervision guidelines4

Performance Evaluation and SupervisionGuidelines

238

  • Engel (2004) identified four styles of supervision among police supervisors.

    • Traditional – supervisors who expect measurable outcomes from subordinates

    • Innovative - supervisors who encourage officers to be problem solvers

    • Supportive – supervisors who act as a buffer between officers and management

    • Active – supervisors who work actively with subordinate employees

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


Performance evaluation and supervision guidelines5

Performance Evaluation and SupervisionGuidelines

238

  • Robbins and Judge (2007) identify three skill sets of effective supervision.

    • Technical skills – specialized knowledge or expertise

    • Human skills – the ability to work with and motivate people

    • Conceptual skills – the ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


Chapter summary

Chapter Summary

  • Criminal justice organizations have many goals and often these goals contradict and conflict with one another.

  • This makes goal consensus difficult.

  • Organizational structure plays a major role in how employee evaluation and supervision will occur.

  • The two primary models of employee supervision within criminal justice organizations are the traditional and human service models of employee supervision.

  • Criminal justice administrators face multiple challenges when attempting to implement a human service model of employee supervision (conflicting goals, competing interests and fiscal/organizational constraints).

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


Chapter summary1

Chapter Summary

  • Guidelines do exist for effective employee supervision within criminal justice organizations.

  • These guidelines must fit the needs, goals, and structures of these organizations.

  • Research identifies the primary work functions of criminal justice managers and the work roles of employees.

  • Criminal justice managers use multiple styles of supervision and no single style is effective in all situations.

  • The effectiveness of a supervision style depends on the types of organizational goals pursued by the organization.

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


Thinking point and question

Thinking Point and Question

  • Captain Jones has just been assigned to command the Administrative Division of a large urban police department.

  • This division contains a diverse array of line and staff functions including:

    • Crime records

    • Crime laboratory

    • Special investigations (e.g. internal affairs, public integrity unit)

    • Training

    • Human resources

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


Thinking point and question1

Thinking Point and Question

  • In some units (e.g. crime records) employee performance is quantifiable. In others, (e.g. internal affairs) it is more difficult to measure employee performance.

  • The City Council has just approved a new employee merit pay system. Employees who perform meritoriously are eligible for up to a five percent pay raise.

  • Department policy requires that all employees are eligible for merit pay.

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


Thinking point and question2

Thinking Point and Question

  • Using what you have learned about employee performance evaluation systems, develop a system that Captain Jones can use to make merit pay decisions for his diverse employees. This system should insure that:

    • Only meritorious employees receive raises, and

    • All employees are eligible regardless of their work assignment.

Chapter 8 - Personnel Evaluation


Performance appraisal

Performance Appraisal

43

  • The process by which a manager or consultant

    (1) examines and evaluates an employee's work behavior by comparing it with preset standards,

    (2) documents the results of the comparison, and

    (3) uses the results to provide feedback to the employee to show where improvements are needed and why.

  • Performance appraisals are employed to determine who needs what training, and who will be promoted, demoted, retained, or fired.

Chapter 3 - Managing People


Performance appraisal1

Performance Appraisal

43

  • Setting Targets

    • Either are the beginning or the close of a reporting periods performance targets are set.

    • Target setting ensure the CSO and the people to be rated are in agreement as to what should be achieved.

      • It is vital that you keep a paper trail

Chapter 3 - Managing People


Performance appraisal2

Performance Appraisal

43

  • Target Qualities are:

    • specific

    • measureable

    • relevant

    • time related

Chapter 3 - Managing People


Performance appraisal3

Performance Appraisal

43

  • Targets can vary according to the type of work involved.

  • Targets can also relate to personal development.

  • Word of caution

    • Targets can cause problems when the leader and subordinates can’t come to terms because the targets are irrelevant, unchallenging, or overly demanding.

Chapter 3 - Managing People


Performance appraisal4

Performance Appraisal

43

  • Target questions to ponder:

    • Does the target make good sense?

    • Is it important to the subordinate, the CSO, and the company?

    • Does it mesh with group or company goals?

    • Does the target fall within the CSO’s area of responsibility and authority?

    • Does it carry risks operationally? Financially?

    • If questioned, will top management support the target?

    • Can attainment of the target be verified in a measurable way?

Chapter 3 - Managing People


Performance appraisal5

Performance Appraisal

44

  • 6 to 10 targets should be identified

    • It is possible that some or all may change or evolve as work progresses.

    • Targets will sometimes be contingent upon factors beyond the CSO’s ability to control.

Chapter 3 - Managing People


Performance appraisal6

Performance Appraisal

44

  • Focus on Action Steps

    • Focus on action steps (tasks) required for achievement.

    • Time frames or deadline dates can be established for each action step, programmed to occur in a particular sequence, and assigned to several individuals in a team effort.

Chapter 3 - Managing People


Performance appraisal7

Performance Appraisal

44

  • Base and Stretch are two types of targets

  • Base and Stretch A base target involves tasks that are integral to the job and sometimes routine in nature. Example: writing an investigative report.

  • A stretch target does beyond the norms of job expectations. These typically address a major problem, challenge, or opportunities.

Chapter 3 - Managing People


Performance appraisal8

Performance Appraisal

44

  • Performance Review

    • At pre-established intervals, the CSO and the subordinate meet to review progress.

    • The subordinate is invited to comment on performance with respect to the agreed upon targets, highlighting areas of success, improvement, and difficulties encountered.

      • (see Figure 3-4 p. 45)

Chapter 3 - Managing People


Performance appraisal9

Performance Appraisal

44

  • Performance Review

    • A review meeting can be a time for revising, canceling, or creating targets in light of experience.

    • Don’t forget to CYA… document, document, document!

    • The subordinate may be invited to comment such as offering suggestions about how performance on particular targets could be improved.

    • The usual practice is to make the formal rating following the final review meeting of the reporting period.

Chapter 3 - Managing People


Performance appraisal10

Performance Appraisal

46

  • Self-Appraisal

    • Advantages of a self-appraisal: (fig. 3-5)

      • The employee may be the best source of information about the quality of job performance.

      • Self-appraisal increases the perception of fairness.

      • Areas over which the rater and employee disagree can be highlighted.

      • The process may help the employee gain personal insights as to success or failure.

Chapter 3 - Managing People


Performance appraisal11

Performance Appraisal

46

  • Self-Appraisal

    • Disadvantages of a self-appraisal:

      • The employee may deliberately give a low rating in order to avoid disagreement with the rater.

      • The employee may deliberately give a high rating in order to put pressure on the rater.

      • When the employee and the rater disagree, bad feelings can result.

      • The employee may dislike the idea of self-disclosure.

Chapter 3 - Managing People


Performance appraisal cycle

Performance Appraisal Cycle

46

  • Performance reports should be cyclical in nature. That is they should:

    • Transition to a starting point from the ending point of a previous period, passing through one or more phases marked by pre-established time intervals, and then moving on to the starting point of the next cycle.

Chapter 3 - Managing People


Performance appraisal cycle1

Performance Appraisal Cycle

48

  • Starting Point

    • The starting point for appraisal involves CSO and subordinate agreeing on targets for the upcoming cycle, measures that will be used to evaluate performance, and meeting dates for the purpose of reviewing progress.

      • Usually these are done quarterly

Chapter 3 - Managing People


Performance appraisal cycle2

Performance Appraisal Cycle

48

  • Quarterly Reviews

    • On specified dates the CSO and the subordinate meet to compare performance against the targets.

      • The targets are revised, if needed, and the subordinate is coached an counseled if needed.

      • A “get-well” date can be set before final review

    • During the final progress review, the subordinate’s overall performance is considered, forming a foundation for a written performance rating.

Chapter 3 - Managing People


Performance appraisal cycle3

Performance Appraisal Cycle

48

  • Ending Point

    • The end of one cycle and the start of the next tend to blur.

    • Between the final progress review and the end of the cycle, the CSO selects a performance rating; writes the performance report and obtains the subordinate’s comments and signature on the report; determines the subordinate’s merit pay increase or bonus, and begins to develop with the subordinate a new set of targets for the upcoming cycle.

Chapter 3 - Managing People


Performance appraisal cycle4

Performance Appraisal Cycle

  • Rating on Merit

    • Though a systematic rating procedure, usually called merit rating, a CSO is able to make equitable decisions regarding monetary and promotion based on appraisal records.

Chapter 3 - Managing People


Performance appraisal cycle5

Performance Appraisal Cycle

48

  • Objective and Quantitative

    • Merit rating are suppose to be designed to be objective, and not subjective, in nature.

    • CSOs must make an objective judgment based on supporting evidence in order to promote, fire, or discipline an employee.

    • Conducted casually, performance appraisal can be destructive.

Chapter 3 - Managing People


10 rating errors to avoid

10 Rating Errors to Avoid

48

10 Rating Errors to Avoid during Performance Reviews

  • Rating errors are factors that mislead or blind us in the appraisal process. “Appraisers must be on guard against anything that distorts reality, either favorably or unfavorably." (Sharon Armstrong)

Chapter 3 - Managing People


10 rating errors to avoid1

10 Rating Errors to Avoid

48

  • Central tendency. Clustering everyone in the middle performance categories to avoid extremes of good or bad performance; it’s easy, but it’s wrong. This isn’t fair to employees who are really making an effort, and it can be demoralizing.

  • Favoritism. Overlooking the flaws of favored or "nice" employees, especially those whom everyone likes.

  • Grouping. Excusing below-standard performance because it is widespread; "everyone does it."

Chapter 3 - Managing People


10 rating errors to avoid2

10 Rating Errors to Avoid

48

  • Guilt by association. Rating someone on the basis of the company they keep, rather than on the work they do.

  • The halo effect. Letting one positive work factor you like affect your overall assessment of performance.

  • Holding a grudge. A dangerous luxury that may result in your ending up in court. Never try to make employees pay for past behavior.

  • The horns effect. The opposite of the halo effect – letting one negative work factor or behavior you dislike color your opinion of other factors

Chapter 3 - Managing People


10 rating errors to avoid3

10 Rating Errors to Avoid

48

  • Bias. Allowing your bias to influence the rating. Bias can come from attitudes and opinions about race, national origin, sex, religion, age, veterans’ status, disability, hair color, weight, height, intelligence, etc.

  • Recency. Rating only recent performance, good or bad. Data should be representative of the entire review period. If you’re not keeping good notes, you may not remember the whole period. Armstrong noted that "you want to make sure, again, that you’re keeping records so that you can adequately describe performance over an entire performance period.”

  • The sunflower effect. Rating everyone high, regardless of performance, to make yourself look good or to be able to give more compensation.

Chapter 3 - Managing People


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